Decoding Ancient Engineering Technology at Ramappa Temple, India

Let’s take a look at Ramappa Temple which was built at least 800 years ago, and by the end of this video, I think you would agree with me that ancient builders must have used a very advanced technology, similar to modern day technology. Let’s take a look at the ceiling in the center of this temple. In one square, we can see hundreds of Gods and if you zoom in and shine a flashlight, we can identify each and every one of them. Every corner tells a story. We are not going to examine the complex spiral designs which look like 3d cymatic patterns, we are not going to look at the protruding buds, and the centerpiece which is hanging out in the middle. We are only going to zoom in on the smaller figures which are less than 1 inch long. This temple was invaded by a commander called Malik Kafur, and he destroyed some of these figures. But what’s fascinating is that after he destroyed the figures, you can clearly see the X mark behind them.

This means there is a gap between each small idol, and the surface at the back. The idols are very small, less than 1 inch long, so the gaps between the idol and the background must have been in millimeters. So, how did anyone create these X marks behind them within these small gaps? Forget about ancient machining technology. We cannot even carve these X marks today, because there is no room to put your hands inside and carve them?

How can we make the X pattern on solid rock, with 2 millimeters space to carve, even with modern machinery? We would need flexible drilling and polishing tools similar to instruments used for advanced surgical operations like laparoscopy. Even if they were molded using rock melting technology, the ancient builders would still need very advanced precision tools to create the mold or the frame itself. But there is more baffling evidence of ancient machining technology. This temple has a series of statues placed all around it, and at first look, you think they are modern day wax models molded to perfection. Archeologists confirm that these were made by ancient builders, but there are no tool marks, and no human errors made on these structures. Were they created using high tech engraving and polishing tools, similar to what we use today?

Now, what really baffles me about these statues is not how perfect they are, but how they are still standing in place, even after a powerful earthquake shook this temple. The earthquake dislodged many of the blocks in the temple, and I have already shown you how the ancient builders made this structure earthquake proof. But how did these statues, not fall down? These are individual statues made of black basalt and are standing at an angle. How are they attached to these sandstone blocks behind them? Normally, it would be impossible to find out, but ancient builders were extremely clever, they knew that someday, someone would come looking for answers.

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Edible Wild Flowers

CALENDULA
Known as the “poor man’s saffron,” the sunset-hued marigold flower really does taste like saffron when it’s sautéed in olive oil to release its flavor. Here’s how to make a calendula oil infusion. Uncooked marigold petals have a more subtle, slightly spicy taste and add depth to deviled eggs.

Courgette Blossoms

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ZUCCHINI BLOSSOMS
The bright yellow flowers of the courgette or zucchini plant have a delicate and slightly sweet taste. Enjoy them the classic way–stuffed with herbs and goat cheese–or on a pizzalike this one, which features fresh pesto, a summertime favorite.

Hibiscus

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HIBISCUS
Both tart and sweet, hibiscus petals have a cranberry-like flavor that makes them perfect for teas and cocktails. Drop fresh hibiscus buds into glasses of bubbly and let your guests watch them bloom before their eyes.

Lavender

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LAVENDER
Sweet and slightly perfumed-tasting, lavender works well when the buds are sprinkled in champagne and cocktails and over desserts like chocolate cake. Or try it in a lavender peach crisp served with vanilla ice cream. Click here for the recipe.

Nasturtiums

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NASTURTIUMS
These gorgeous flowers have a slightly peppery taste, almost like watercress, which makes them perfect for summer rice paper rolls like these. You can also stuff a whole flower with a savory mousse or enjoy nasturtium flowers like this with beef carpaccio.

Pansies

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PANSIES
Pansies have a slightly grassy—even minty—flavor, so they work well in herb-flavored summer cocktails and fruit salads. For a quick, easy, and festive summer hors d’oeuvre, spread some cream cheese on a small round cracker and top it with a whole pansy.

Roses

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ROSES
While roses have a strong floral scent, their flavor is quite subtle and fruity. Roses lend themselves well to everything from soups and salads to teas, jams, and desserts like this delicious strawberry, pomegranate, and rose petal treat.

Sage Flowers

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SAGE FLOWERS
With their soft, yet sweet-savory flavor and beautiful color, sage flowers add dimension to a variety of dishes. For summer, pair them with lemon and other garden treats in a popsicle for a surprisingly refreshing treat.

Violets

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VIOLETS
Violets, which come in a range of pastel and vibrant colors, have a sweet and floral taste, making them a perfect companion for everything from salads to iced drinks. They are particularly beautiful when crystallized and used to top frosted cakes and other desserts.

FLOWER PICKING TIPS
Be sure to avoid using flowers that have been sprayed with pesticides or other chemicals. Always purchase your edible flowers from the produce section of your grocery store or, for online sources, try The Chef’s GardenGourmet Sweet Botanicals, or Marx Foods.

FLOWER PREPPING TIPS
When cooking with or serving edible flowers, clean them by washing them gently in a large bowl of cold water and letting them air dry on a paper towel. Use them immediately or store them in the refrigerator for up to a week in an airtight container lined with a damp paper towel.