The move is motivated by complaints that new cannabis laws do not provide paths for Black and brown people to thrive in what appears to be a billion dollar industry
Source – TheGrio
The move is motivated by complaints that new cannabis laws do not provide paths for Black and brown people to thrive in what appears to be a billion dollar industry
Source – TheGrio
Plant growth regulators are molecules that influence the development of plants and are generally active at very low concentrations. There are natural regulators, which are produced by the plant itself, and also synthetic regulators; those found naturally in plants are called phytohormones or plant hormones.
Substances considered phytohormones include auxins, gibberelins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene, and more recently brassinosteroids, salicylic acid, jasmonates, systemin, polyamines, nitric oxide and signal peptides. In this article We take a closer look at auxins
There are differences between plant and animal hormones. For example, animal hormones are synthesized in particular organs or tissues, and by definition they act in different places to where they are produced. This is not necessarily true for phytohormones; some exert their action in exactly the smame place where they are synthesized.
Although all phytohormones have their own specific effects, their combination produces a varied response in plants.
An overview of which plant hormone is responsible for which plant process.
The main effect of auxins is to cause cell elongation, mainly due to the alteration of cell wall plasticity. Auxins are synthesized in the apical meristems and to a lesser degree in the roots. The main auxin to be synthesized naturally by plants is indole acetic acid (IAA), although others have been found such as phenylacetic acid, the chlorindoles and, more recently, indole butyric acid (IBA).
The movement of these phytohormones is from the apices to the roots (basipetal) and vice versa (acropetal). However, basipetal movement is much more rapid than acropetal movement
Some of the effects of auxins in plants include:
Apical dominance. It is well known among growers that when one eliminates the main apical axis (main vertical stem) of a plant, secondary apices will begin to grow and several of these will go on to form main stems. This occurs because the auxins produced by the apical meristem suppresses the growth and development of secondary buds.
Rhizogenesis. Auxins are the main components responsible for the formation of root cells. This property is used by gardeners to produce cuttings: applying auxins to the base of the cut promotes the formation of new roots. This rhizogenesis occurs at very low concentrations of auxins, since higher concentrations of auxins suppress root growth and development. However, it is the presence of other phytohormones that determines whether the new cells become roots or other organs. The balance between auxins and cytokinins plays a very important role in this process. Thus when plant cells are grown in vitro in culture media, if the concentration of auxins is greater than that of cytokinins, new roots will be formed. However, if the concentration of cytokinins is greater than that of auxins, the cells will eventually develop into new buds. When the concentration of the two hormone types is similar, cell growth will occur without differentiation, forming a mass of developing cells called a callus.
Geotropism. Gravity exerts an effect on plant development. When a plant stem is placed in a horizontal position, lateral buds will begin to develop and may form roots in the zone which is in contact with the soil. This is due to the accumulation of auxins due to the effect of gravity. This phenomenon is used to obtain new plants using a technique called layering.
Phototropism. Plants tend to grow towards the light. This process is regulated by auxins, which accumulate in parts that receive less light; this results in the elongation of the cells in this zone and makes the stem curve towards the light. Further reading in: The effect of light spectrum on plant development.
Regulation of abscission. Abscission is the shedding of some parts of the plant. In many cases the cause is the aging of the plant tissue, called senescence. The exogenous application of auxins will reduce abscission in many species.
Phototropism is the growth of a plant in response to light. This process is regulated by auxins. A: when sunlight is overhead, the IAA molecules (Indole Acetic Acid; the main auxin to be synthesised naturally by plants) produced by the apical meristem are distributed evenly in the shoot. B: once the sunlight starts to reach the shoot at an angle, the IAA molecules move to the far side and induce elongation of cells on that side. C: cell elongation results in the bending of the shoot toward the light.
Husband-and-wife co-founders Eddie and Sherra Armstrong want to help make medical cannabis profitable for people of color. The couple recently launched Cannabis Capital Group, a consulting firm that assists marijuana-based companies with the education, advocacy, and investment needed to compete in the space.
“We want to be seen as public advocates for responsibility around cannabis: how you use it; how police officers treat it when they interact with people; and how you use it as medicine for your grandparents or if you’re an individual who’s received a medical cannabis card in the state of Illinois,” Armstrong said in a statement to The Network Journal. “We want to be able to provide that education channel with organizations such as Chicago NORML and the National Cannabis Industry Association that are already providing those tools to communities. More importantly, we want to serve minority communities that might not be able to get the same education or go online and find the same information that other people can readily find.”
The market is projected to be an $80 billion business by 2030 according to the site, yet, blacks own less than 4% of the companies created in comparison to the 81% of cannabis businesses owned by whites, according to Marijuana Business Daily.
The Armstrongs also plan to roll out a crowdfunding platform to allow investors to get involved. “Think of a product maker, for example, who creates a product used for the treatment of seizures,” Armstrong continued. “As these new companies start up and bring products to the marketplace, Cannabis Capital Group plans to be the conduit between the startup business and investors who might not regularly invest in these types of opportunities.” These investors will include physicians, pharmacists, nutritionists, and veterinarians with whom they have already built relationships.
Source – BlackEnteprise
Nutrient uptake and transport
Nutrients are usually taken up by the root system. This process involves the following steps. The first requirement is mobility of the nutrients through the soil or any substrate in the rhizosphere to the roots. Then the nutrients need to pass several ‘root barriers’; the cell wall, followed by the cell membrane. The crucial steps inside the plant are the migration of the nutrients to vascular tissue (called the xylem), followed by cell to cell transport.
The shifting of nutrients through the soil depends on the several soil characteristics; pH, structure, moisture content and microbial activity. Some micro-organisms affect the rhizosphere (especially mycorrhizal fungi, which interact directly with plant roots), but most soil borne micro-organisms do not or hardly affect the rhizosphere. Micro-organisms can be beneficial (e.g. improving nutrient availability) or harmful (e.g. in competition for soil nutrients or causing root diseases). The dissolved nutrients are transported with the convective flow of water from the soil to the plant roots. This flow depends highly on the water consumption of the plant and the average nutrient concentration in the water. As we will see later in this article, water uptake by the plant and nutrient content in the substrate can be controlled easily by the grower.
A small percentage (less than 1%) of the nutrients is taken up by interception through the root tip. This interception is based on direct ion exchange, where positively or negatively charged elements are swapped (e.g. a proton (H+) from the root for a potassium ion (K+) from the substrate or nutrient solution).
Now how are the nutrients ‘in the flow’ taken up by a plant (figure 1)? The biggest barrier is usually the cell membrane which is highly selective. The basic structure of a cell membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which has very low permeability for most nutrients. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water and some neutral molecules like urea are the only products that can easily pass the membrane directly through the lipid layer by diffusion.
Figure 1: Schematic overview of a root (hair) cell membrane. The portals incorporated into the cell membrane are transport proteins. These transport proteins function because all essential mineral nutrients are absorbed as positively or negatively charged ions (boron being the only exception here). a ‘symport’ transports the desired nutrients and protons in the same direction. These are usually negatively charged ions such as nitrates (nO3-), phosphates (H2PO4-) and sulphates (SO42-). The ‘antiport’ transports positively charged ions in exchange for protons (H+). For instance, excess potassium ions (K+) can be moved outside the cell. as can be seen in the picture, a proton (H+) is required in both cases to facilitate the transportation process. a ‘uniport’ transports compounds, molecules or ions without known coupling to the transport of any other compound, molecule or ion. Energy (aTP) is needed to re-transport the proton outside the cell.
All other essential mineral nutrients are absorbed as ions (except boron). Therefore all nutrients (except boron) need membrane transporters. To facilitate the uptake of these nutrients, the cell membrane contains so-called transport proteins embedded in the cell membrane, controlling the intracellular environment (=the space in the plant cell). Two main mechanisms of cross-membrane movement can be identified; passive and active. Passive movement is the easy way, via carrier proteins and transport through ion channels. The active method is by ATP-ases or cotransport (Knox, Ladiges & Evans). ATP-ases are proteins that carry the ‘energy molecule’ ATP. The energy that is released by breaking down ATP is used to open or close specific transportation ports.
The driving force for passive movement is diffusion. It is selective for single nutrient molecules, requires no input of energy and has a non-linear dependence on concentration. Molecules will diffuse until the concentration is the same everywhere.
Ion channel transport can be controlled by voltage or ion concentration, even by light or hormones. Active transport requires input of energy, but nutrients can be transported against their concentration gradient.
Long distance transport
Several pathways of nutrient transport have been described in the plant. The most common one is the nutrient uptake by the root, followed by ‘long distance transport’ via the xylem vessels to the leaves and flowers (or any other plant organ). For the long distance transport two driving forces play a key role; the water potential gradient and the root pressure. Root pressure arises when osmosis drives water from the soil into the roots. Effectively because plants accumulate the nutrients taken up in the xylem tissue.
Factors that influence nutrient uptake
There are intrinsic and environmental factors which affect the nutrient uptake. Charge and ion diameter are intrinsic factors. Environmental factors are light, temperature, water, O2, pH, concentration and interaction between nutrients. The uptake often increases in the following order; uncharged molecules are taken up better than monovalent cations and anions, followed by bivalent cations and anions (Marschner, 2011).
The nutrient uptake is pH dependent, but not every nutrient is equally affected. In most cases there is an optimum and too high and too low pH levels decrease the nutrient uptake. The root zone pH influences the charge of the root surface which is slightly negative. Most nutrients are plant available in the pH range 5.5-6.5. Light is a source of driving forces, therefore there are diurnal fluctuations in nutrient uptake. Like pH also temperature has an optimum level, too high and too low temperatures decreases nutrient uptake.
Temperature is a driving force for evaporation of plants, opening stomata and the root zone temperature depend the nutrient uptake. Water is important, because, except for interception, nutrients are transferring through mass flow and diffusion, all of which are dissolved in the soil solution. It is important to maintain a suitable soil water content (60-80% field water holding capacity) for optimal growth of plants. Oxygen will limit plant growth in poorly aerated substrates (Hopkins, 1950). The higher the nutrient concentration the higher the uptake rate, the increase slows down at very high concentrations. Interaction between ions can be antagonism (competition) or synergism. In the first case one ion inhibits the absorption of another ion. And in the second case one ion enhances the absorption of another ion.
Competition can be between cation versus cation, anion versus anion, the same charge and different charge. A single salt resulting in plant poisoning is called toxicity of a single salt (KCl, CaCl). Ion antagonism is referred as the interaction among ions can limit the toxicity of a single salt (NaCl+KCl+CaCl2 or NaCl+CaCl2). Synergism is that anions promote cation uptake and divalent cations promote mono-charged cations (Ca2+ promotes the uptake of K- and Cl-).
Fertilization of crops
The uptake of nutrients is facilitated by cell membrane bound protein transporters membrane transporters. Synthesis of transporters responds to nutrient deficiency and toxicity. Nutrient transporters behave like enzymes. Transport can be driven by concentration and electrical gradient (passive transport) and metabolic energy (active transport).
The quality of the crop, or the fertilization success of crops depend on a phenomenon, which can be shortly explained by the following theory. The barrel theory (or the law of minimum) is about the crop yield which is limited by the most deficient nutrient, and the limited nutrient is changeable. This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth, where it was found that increasing the amount of plentiful nutrients did not increase plant growth. Only by increasing the amount of the limiting nutrient (the one most scarce in relation to ‘need’) was the growth of a plant or crop improved (see figure 2).
Figure 2: an overview of the barrel concept (the ‘law of the minimum’). This theory relates to crop yield, and states that the yield is limited by the nutrient which is the most deficient; this could be any one of the nutrients shown. according to this image, the growth of a plant or crop can only be improved by increasing the amount of this ‘limiting’ nutrient.
There is also absorption of mineral nutrients by the leaves. Foliar nutrition is a method in which the fertilizer is applied to plant shoot, usually to leaves. The advantage of foliar nutrition is that the supply and uptake of nutrients is effective and fast, because the usual lag period between root uptake and vessel transportation towards the plant organs is cut out. Furthermore, the nutrients applied have a higher utilization rate. Leaf fertilizers are usually a supplement way to compensate macronutrient deficiency such as nitrogen and magnesium, but also effective against micronutrient deficiencies such as iron.
The concentration which can be applied is not too high. The nutrients need to remain on the leaf surface, preferably in a thin film. Therefore, the mixture of nutrients should be applied together with a surfactant. Spraying is recommended only in the evening or on a cloudy day to prevent burn marks.
Read the full article and part one at CannaGardening
Swami and French discuss the illusive history of hash.
Look at this bone to bloodclaat! Ackee boil, Ackee boil….. Some Jamaica/Italy fusion on this one! Rasta Mokko (with Ratty) prepares some freshly picked ackee & salt mackerel in step one of this Rasta Pasta meal! Okra, Garlic, Scallion, Thyme…..make sure you pick the mackerel well though or it can be deadly…… We chat dangerous skellington bones, taste some Baba Roots, counting time VS food business, a thyme to laugh, a time to cry and deadly molasses…. bless up, Matthew & Mokko ★SUPPORT★ https://www.gofundme.com/helpmokko https://www.patreon.com/raskitchen https://raskitchen.com/pages/donate ★CONNECT★ Ras Kitchen Instagram & Facebook https://www.instagram.com/raskitchent… http://www.facebook.com/raskitchenTV ★VISIT RASTA MOKKO★ http://www.rastamokko.com http://bit.ly/RiversideCool1 http://bit.ly/RiversideCool2 ★Music★ Ras Kitchen Intro/Outro https://songwhip.com/artist/marc-gutt… Devil and the Perfects (Hanging out) Blue Topaz- Messed Up Break up Sarah the Illstrumentalist-Grey Hematite Jimmy Krak Korn- out West https://soundcloud.com/jimi-krak-korn Pandora-The New Fools
As the number of states legalizing marijuana steadily increases, African Americans are slowly but surely carving out their own space within the billion dollar industry. Since Blacks have been disproportionately criminalized for marijuana possession for decades, it’s refreshing to see more take hold of the industry and claim it. These Black entrepreneurs are at the forefront of that movement.
Budding Solutions is a boutique cannabis consulting firm based in Baltimore, MD providing consulting and management services to startups and established organizations in the Cannabis Industry.
Owner: Shanita Penny
The Canna MDs is a family-owned business specializing in the use of Cannabis Therapeutics for their patients. They’ve counseled several thousands of patients in using cannabis therapies to promote and restore health, wellbeing, and function.
Owners: Dr. Rachel Knox & Dr. Jessica Knox
District Growers is a close-knit, local business providing the highest quality cannabis products on the market. The company is also a registered medical cannabis cultivator..
Owner: Corey Barnette
Location: Washington D.C.
The Hollingsworth Cannabis Co is a family owned and operated Tier III producer and processor. At their Seattle company you can find quality cannabis hand-packed to order.
Location: Seattle, WA
Owner: Raft Hollingsworth
(Photo: Marc Piscotty / for NBC News)
MIPR Holdings is a cannabis-related consulting services company focusing on the development and growth of businesses seeking to tap into the marijuana space. Their overall vision is to educate communities most effected by the “War on Drugs” and empower them to get involved in the cannabis industry whether as business owners, or as investors with the intent of creating generational wealth.
Owner: Khadijah and Charles Adams
Location: Aurora, Colorado
Minorities for Medical Marijuana is an organization providing education, marketing and more to minority communities on cannabis public policy, business, healthcare access, and social impact.
Owner: Roz McCarthy
Headquarters: Orlando, FL
Panacea Valley Gardens is a family-owned cultivation facility dedicated to growing clean, consistent, high-quality cannabis in Oregon, from concentrates to edibles.
Location: Portland, OR
Owner: Jesce Horton
(Photo: George Demopoulos / Business Den)
Simply Pure is the first Black woman-owned dispensary in Denver, CO that offers customers high quality, organically grown and cured cannabis (concentrates, medicinal CBD oils, and edibles from marijuana infused jams and granola bars). Co-owner Wanda James also left us with so many gems during our interview with her. Read that HERE.
Owners: Wanda James & Scott Durrah
Location: Denver, CO
StashTwist is a Black woman-operated,non-profit cannabis collective in the East Bay providing safe access to high-quality medical cannabis and cannabis products. They offer select edibles, oils, loose-leaf herb, tinctures, vape pens, topicals, and everything in between.
Owner: Andrea Unsworth
(Photo: Roxanne Pasibe)
Supernova Women is an organization that offers networking for women of color interested in entering the cannabis industry.
Co-Owners: Andrea Unsworth, Amber Senter, Sunshine Lencho, Nina Parks
The Weed Show is a daily series hosted by Charlo Greene. You may remember her as the Alaskan news anchor who quit while live on air with the now infamous words “Fuck It, I Quit.” share the most useful, interesting and entertaining information about weed that you can use to live your best life.
Owner: Charlo Greene
For more Black-owned businesses, check out our directory of over 2,500 Black-owned businesses HERE.
Source – OfficialBlackWallStreet
The hemp fields sprouting in a part of Canada best known for its giant oil patch show how climate change is disrupting the construction industry.
Six years after setting up shop in the shadow of Calgary’s tar sands, Mac Radford, 64, says he can’t satisfy all the orders from builders for Earth-friendly materials that help them limit their carbon footprints. His company, JustBioFiber Structural Solutions, is on the vanguard of businesses using hemp — the boring cousin of marijuana devoid of psychoactive content — to mitigate the greenhouse gases behind global warming.
Around the world, builders are putting modern twists into ancient construction methods that employ the hearty hemp weed. Roman engineers used the plant’s sinewy fibers in the mortar they mixed to hold up bridges. More recently, former White House adviser Steve Bannon weighed in on using so-called hempcrete to build walls. Early results indicate it’s possible to tap demand for cleaner alternatives to cement.
“We have way more demand than we can supply,” said Radford from his plant in Airdrie, which is undergoing expansion and soon expects to churn out enough Lego-like hemp bricks each year to build 2,000 homes.
Greener alternatives to cement add to the pressure on companies including LafargeHolcim and Votorantim Cimentos as the global economy pivots toward dramatically lower emissions.
Cement makers are responsible for about 7% of global carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere every year, with copious volumes entering via limestone kilns needed to produce the material. Manufacturers say they’ve struggled to find markets for greener alternatives, giving easy entree to entrepreneurs like Radford who cater to customers concerned about their impact on the Earth.
“They love it once they understand it,” said Radford of the builders who’ve adopted the modular, inter-locking bricks he invented for their projects. “Our old practices we have to change.”
While architects and developers have traditionally concentrated on the energy used by their buildings once they’re are standing, it’s actually the materials required in their construction that represent the brunt of a structure’s lifetime carbon footprint. Replacing high-carbon-intensity materials like cement with greener alternatives like hemp can dramatically reduce or even offset greenhouse gas pollution.
Hemp fields absorb carbon when they’re growing. After harvest, the crop continues to absorb greenhouse gases as it’s mixed with lime or clay. Hempcrete structures also have better ventilation, fire resistance and temperature regulation, according to their proponents.
Numbers across the industry vary depending on the process, but JustBioFiber says that its hemp captures 130 kilograms (287 pounds) of carbon dioxide for each cubic meter it builds. Those structures made with their bricks will sequester more greenhouse gases than they emit in production. By contrast each ton of cement produced emits half a ton of carbon dioxide, according to the European Cement Association.
Read the full article at SFGATE
Thailand became the first country in Southeast Asia to legalise medical marijuana in December and in June, Asia’s first marijuana clinic opened in Bangkok. Now, the government is still not done with easing its rules.
The Bhumanjaithai Party said they would file a draft bill this week that pushes for the legalisation of homegrown pot, the Bangkok Post reported. This comes in light of a public forum organised by the party that discussed how to reap the economic and medical benefits of marijuana.
The party was a major player in campaigning for opening up the cannabis market during Thailand’s elections in March.
Party member Supachai Jaisamut told the Bangkok Post that the draft bill would amend the Narcotics Act to allow households to grow a maximum of six cannabis plants for personal consumption. It would need the support of at least 500 legislators to be implemented. State and non-government officials, folk doctors, and Thai traditional medicine practitioners who attended the forum showed support for the party’s initiative.
In conjunction with this proposal, Supachai said that the party also plans to submit another draft bill proposing the establishment of a “Narcotic Plants Institute.” The institute would oversee the research, development, imports, and exports of cannabis, and would be the entity in charge of granting permission for people to grow the plants in their homes.
Rosana Tositrakul, the Thai Holistic Health Foundation’s secretary-general told the Bangkok Post that legalising homegrown cannabis would remove the state’s five-year plantation monopoly, allowing people to develop various strains and make Thai cannabis more competitive. She also added that it would help folk doctors treat their patients by allowing them to grow marijuana.
Other countries in the region are discussing the possibility of following in Thailand’s footsteps, including, Malaysia, Laos, and the Philippines. However, some countries remain conservative in their attitudes towards cannabis, including Singapore where two men were arrested on Monday for growing weed in their flat.
This article originally appeared on VICE ASIA
As much as we love a huge green salad, smoothie, or juice, we’re discussing going green in a whole new way today. In this episode, Black Girl In Om Founder Lauren Ash and Art Director Deun Ivory sit down with DeJanae Evins, an expert on cannabis, wellness, and their various intersections. As the creator of and creative mastermind behind Green Goddess Glow and HighTide Tours, DeJanae educates on how to incorporate cannabis into your self-care with intention across the globe and uncover new experiences of life in the beautiful city of Los Angeles. Whether you’re a cannabis connoisseur, curious about the science behind it, have no experience beyond media perceptions, or fall somewhere in between, we’re certain this will be an enriching, educational, and easeful listening experience. As a woman growing into her own glow, DeJanae is committed to promoting the divine feminine through education about conscious cannabis use and self-care practices. Consider this an invitation for you to find your own glow and dive deeper into the world of conscious consumption with DeJanae. Sit back, get comfy, and let this deeply knowledgeable and incredibly intentional green goddess get you right. We’re sure you won’t regret it.
Catch more from DeJanae through her websites for Green Goddess Glow and High Tide Tours, reach out directly at firstname.lastname@example.org, and follow her across social media @greengoddessglow or on her personal account @dejanaetanye. Keep an eye out across her platforms for forthcoming information on teachings, talks, seminars, grow initiatives, and more offerings that demonstrate how conscious cannabis consumption can improve your life.
This episode is sponsored by Foria. Foria is a pioneering cannabis & hemp brand offering a range of unique products for pleasure enhancement, pain relief, and overall wellness. Follow along on their website and their Instagram to learn more about all that Foria offers. Plus, use code lauren20 on your next order for a special discount just for our Black Girl In Om boos. We hope you love it as much as we do!
IN THIS EPISODE, YOU’LL FIND OUT ABOUT:
Green Goddess Glow + how DeJanae’s relationship to cannabis has continuously evolved
Lauren’s personal journey with cannabis + the stigmas she released to get through it
DeJanae’s intentional vision for this year + her plants
The importance of language in the public conversations around cannabis
Historical examples of cannabis’ various medicinal uses
One specific way to incorporate the plant in your daily life
How cannabis and your body have systems that work exactly the same
How Deun’s perspective of cannabis has changed over the years + a documentary series that helped her see things in a new light
Full plant medicine vs. synthesized compounds and THC vs. CBD — what’s the difference and what are their effects
What you should consider when it comes to choosing the right cannabis for you — there are similarities to a wellness staple you may already be familiar with
DeJanae’s personal journey in a particularly difficult time in her life
How cannabis can actually help us with a deficiency we have based on our society
A book that helped further open Lauren’s eyes to the way our people have been particularly marginalized through the years
A few helpful resources you can download today and use to learn more about conscious consumption