Category Archives: Cannabis

Cannabis Select – Bio Diesel

Bio-Diesel

Bio-Diesel

Bio-Diesel is an exceptional cannabis hybrid as evidenced by the 1st place title it earned at 2009’s 2nd Annual Colorado Medical Marijuana Harvest Cup. This four-way cross between Sour Diesel, Sensi Star, Original Diesel, and NYC Diesel excels at delivering both intense and balanced effects: an acute, speedy onset gravitates into numbing relaxation. The hybrid effects make this strain a reliable choice for mental and physical relief alike, so it’s no surprise that Bio-Diesel is cherished by cannabis connoisseurs.

Effects

Read more info on Leafly  

Malawi legalizes cannabis for medicine and industrial fibres

 Marijuana plants grow near a road in the Rif region, near Chefchaouen, Morocco, August 11, 2008. REUTERS/Rafael Marchante

BLANTYRE (Reuters) – Malawi has become the latest country in southern African to relax laws against growing and selling cannabis, making it legal for use in the production of medicines and hemp fibres used in industry.

Malawi’s parliament passed a bill on Thursday that makes it legal to cultivate and process cannabis for those two uses, but stops short of decriminalising recreational use. Agriculture Minister Kondwani Nankhumwa tabled the bill.

A growing number of countries around the world are either legalising or relaxing laws on cannabis, also known as marijuana, as attitudes towards the drug change. They include several in southern Africa, most recently Zambia, which in December legalised production for export.

They follow Lesotho, which became the first country in the region to legalise cannabis, for medicinal purposes, in 2017, and Zimbabwe. South Africa meanwhile has decriminalised domestic personal use, and is in the process of lifting a ban on commercial cultivation of the plant.

“We are very happy that finally we’re taking the right steps to move the country’s economy forwards,” Chauncy Jere, a director of Ikaros Africa, one of the two companies conducting industrial hemp trials in Central Malawi, told Reuters.

“There’s no denying that cannabis would be a lucrative industry and its demand is huge,” said Jere, who is spokesman for the Hemp Association of Malawi.

Tobacco, a drug scientists say is far more addictive and ruinous to health than cannabis, has been Malawi’s chief foreign currency earner since independence from Britain in 1964.

Source-  Uk.Reuters 

Hemp to Create Renewable Weed Packaging

Finally! Manufacturers Are Now Using Hemp to Create Renewable Weed Packaging

Hemp-based plastics are being used in 3D printing or injection molding processes to create toothbrushes, sustainable cannabis packaging, and more.

Most of the hype surrounding the recent legalization of industrial hemp has focused on CBD, but manufacturers have been brainstorming dozens of other innovative uses for this versatile plant.

Several new companies are turning to hemp to create renewable bioplastics that can serve as an alternative to traditional, oil-based plastics. As the amount of plastic waste in oceans and landfills reaches epic proportions, researchers are working to create plastic alternatives from renewable sources like straw, wood, food waste, or hemp.

Denver-based Sana Packaging is one company that is using both hemp-derived plastic, as well as recycled ocean plastic, to create sustainable packaging for the cannabis industry. Retail regulations in Canada and US adult-use states often impose extreme packaging requirements on legal weed products, which have resulted in an excessive amount of single-use plastic pot packaging.

“Because of the ability to [easily] produce plastics, we got ourselves into single-use disposable culture, and that has caused a dysfunctional system,” said Sana CEO Ron Basak-Smith to United Press International (UPI). Sana now uses plastics with hemp fillers to create sustainable injection-molded packaging for around 200 legal weed companies.

Chad Ulven, associate professor of mechanical engineering from North Dakota State University, has been exploring how to create bioplastics with polylactic acid, a resin created from corn, coffee or beer waste, flax, cotton, seeds, or charred carbon. Now, Ulven and his Fargo-based company c2Renew are looking at using hemp-based plastics for injection molding and 3D printing.

“There’s a craze around being able to grow hemp finally in the United States and 3D print and play with the material,” said Ulven to UPI. “I’m not saying it’s a save-the-world type of moment… But the more options we have for controlling our discarded waste, the more options we create for sustainability.”

Another Fargo-based company, 3D-Fuel, has also recently started using hemp-based filament. This filament, when melted and layered by a 3D printer, can create plastic surfaces which can be utilized when making frames for glasses, product sales stands, or home décor items like lampshades or vases. “We see a lot of people who use it for specialty parts, especially in the cannabis industry,” said 3D-Fuel CEO John Schneider.

Minnesota-based Bogobrush has focused its efforts to reduce plastic waste in the dental industry by creating hemp-derived toothbrushes (which just might be the perfect pair for cannabis toothpaste). After an initial attempt to create bamboo toothbrushes proved unsuccessful, the company began creating biodegradable and recyclable toothbrushes made from plant-based plastics, including hemp.

“Plastics have done a lot of great things in the world, like being used in airplanes or medical devices,” said Heather McDougall of Bogobrush to UPI. “But we want to be investing in plant-based plastics that can serve us into the future.”

Source – MerryJane

Minority-Owned Marijuana Business Owners In Mass. Are Being Crushed By The Wait For Licenses

chauncy spencer
Part Two | Minority-Owned Marijuana Business Owners Face Crushing Wait Time

This story is part two of a two-part series about host community agreements in Massachusetts. Read part one here. 

Chauncy Spencer is the proud tenant of roughly 10,000 square feet of empty space on Blue Hill Avenue in Mattapan. An old Payless Shoes sign still hangs out front, and inside, bright orange Home Depot buckets catch drops of water from a leaky ceiling. 

“Essentially, this is just carpet … and wall,” Spencer said, surveying the space where he hopes to one day open “The 420,” his recreational marijuana shop. 

Spencer started renting this space for $5,000 per month in April 2018. When he applied for a license to open a pot shop, he said, the state told him he was first in line, and his chances for getting approved were good. He said he thought he would make his rent money back in no time. 

“The city spoke the language of economic empowerment,” Spencer said. “And they encouraged us to come into this space.”

Spencer was considered “priority status” by the state because he’s black, he grew up in a Dorchester neighborhood that has been negatively and disproportionately affected by the war on drugs, and in 2003, he was arrested for growing four weed plants in his Danvers apartment and charged with drug trafficking. 

Through equity programs put in place by the state, applicants with backgrounds like Spencer’s are considered social or economic empowerment candidates, and they were told they could get first dibs to open a marijuana shop. After all Spencer had been through, he said it seemed to him like a kind of justice. 

But the law allowed communities to make demands of applicants, and bigger businesses could offer more incentives to cities and towns. And somehow, those big operators seemed to be getting licenses first. Across the whole state, 309 provisional licenses have been awarded to marijuana applicants, according to the Cannabis Control Commission (CCC). 

But only 11 total licenses have been given out to the 143 participants of the social equity program and the 122 certified economic empowerment applicants, WGBH News has found.

To operate in Massachusetts, a marijuana business has to sign a contract with the city or town they’ll be working in, called a host community agreement (HCA).

Read the full article at WGBH

Cannabis Grow Lighting Lecture

Dr. Bruce Bugbee debunks myths and answers FAQs on grow lights for cannabis based on his research so far at Utah State University’s Crop Physiology Lab (see time-stamps below to navigate topics). Bruce is a world-renowned crop physiology professor famous for his work in controlled environment agriculture for NASA and is president of Apogee Instruments, a developer of research-grade instruments used in precision agriculture. Bruce’s lab at Utah State is one of the few with a license to study cannabis cultivation with several active research projects underway (see: https://www.usu.edu/today/?id=58336 ). The lab’s license is to research hemp, but these principles apply to marijuana, including sativa and indica. Some of Bruce’s answers in this video are based on what the research is showing so far, but further tests are underway. As this is a very hot topic right now, we will do our best to monitor questions posted in the comments below and ask Bruce to answer them in future videos. Timestamps of topics covered

: 0:00 Intro
2:24 Light as one of the nine cardinal parameters
4:04 Can too much light cause problems with my cannabis plants? 5:30 How far should my lights be above my cannabis plants?
9:30 What is the optimum light intensity for growing cannabis? 16:59 PAR and PPFD explained
19:30 The best DLI (Daily Light Integral) for Cannabis
24:25 The proper tools to measure light levels
26:40 DLI levels for seedlings/cuttings
27:20 Photo periods and light pollution thresholds during dark periods
30:20 New light pollution sensors
31:30 Light requirements of different cultivars
32:50 Light quality effect on the synthesis of cannabinoids and terpenes
34:17 UV and Far-red effects on cannabis
39:40 Optimal spectrum for veg and flowering
42:52 Design Light Consortium (DLC) and light efficiency listings

Links: * Dr Bruce Bugbee’s bio: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_B… https://psc.usu.edu/directory/faculty… *
Apogee PPFD Handheld meter version –
https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/mq-… *
USB Smart Sensor version –
https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/sq-… *
All other models –
https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/qua… Apogee PAR-FAR and Red – Far-red sensors: https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/red…
Apogee microCache Bluetooth micrologger:
https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/mic…
Design Light Consortium:
https://www.designlights.org/

Jamaica Cannabis Safer than the States ?

As legal marijuana moves from basements and backwoods to warehouses and commercial fields, the mold and spider mites that once ruined only a few plants at a time can now quickly create a multimillion-dollar crisis for growers. Some are turning to industrial-strength chemicals, raising concerns about safety.

Pesticides and herbicides are regulated by the federal government, which still regards almost all marijuana as an illicit crop, so there’s no roadmap to help pot farmers. Chemists and horticulturalists can’t offer much assistance either. They sometimes disagree about how to combat the problem, largely because the plant is used in many different ways — smoked, eaten and sometimes rubbed on the skin.

Even if marijuana farmers get help with controlling these pests; pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and even fertilizer is not something that a marijuana user wants to have in their marijuana. This is what differentiate marijuana from a small country like Jamaica where it is grown by small farmers versus the United States where it is now being mass produced by big industrial corporations. The side effects from the chemicals in the marijuana from the United States and Canada could override the benefit. For the marijuana smokers who are organic food fanatics, it would make sense for them to head to Jamaica for marijuana versus buying it from an American grower. If you want your food organic, it would make sense that you would want your marijuana organic also.

“We have an industry that’s been illegal for so many years that there’s no research. There’s no guidelines. There’s nothing,” said Frank Conrad, lab director for Colorado Green Lab, a pot-testing lab in Denver.

In states that regulate marijuana, officials are just starting to draft rules governing safe levels of chemicals. So far, there have been no reports of any human illness traced to chemicals used on marijuana, but worries persist.

The city of Denver this spring quarantined tens of thousands of marijuana plants at 11 growing facilities after health inspectors suspected use of unauthorized pesticides. Some of the plants were later released after tests revealed the pot was safe, but two producers voluntarily destroyed their plants. Eight businesses have still at least some plants in quarantine.

So right now, marijuana in the United States is a hit or miss where safety from chemicals is concerned. While great, small farmer grown marijuana with no chemicals is just a plane flight away in Jamaica. Of course most wont go to Jamaica just for marijuana but the island is also a great vacation destination with plenty more to do besides smoking marijuana.

In Oregon, a June investigation by The Oregonian newspaper found pesticides in excess of legal limits on products ranging from marijuana buds to concentrated marijuana oils. Other pesticides detected on the marijuana are not regulated by Oregon’s marijuana rules, meaning that products containing those chemicals still can be sold there.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which decides which pesticides can be used on which crops, just last month told Colorado and Washington authorities that they could apply to have some cannabis-related chemicals approved through what’s called a “special local need registration.” But that process could take years.

Colorado and Oregon require retail marijuana to undergo testing for pesticides and other contaminants. But as the Oregon investigation showed, the testing regimes are imperfect. And Colorado hasn’t yet implemented requirements for retail pot to undergo pesticide testing because of regulatory delays.

Tested or not, if chemicals are put on marijuana it could become just as dangerous as cigarettes.

Washington state is still working on its pesticide rules. The nation’s largest marijuana producer, California, has no regulations at all for growing commercial pot.

“It’s a lot more difficult than it sounds, and it’s expensive,” Washington Liquor Control Board spokesman Brian Smith said about testing for pesticides.

As a result, unscrupulous pot growers can use banned chemicals with little chance of being caught.

“We were taken by surprise, this whole pesticide issue,” said Ashley Kilroy, Denver’s director of marijuana policy. She was talking to a room of about 200 pot-industry workers invited to lunch earlier this month to learn about pesticide quarantines and rules.

What the growers heard wasn’t encouraging.

“There is no federal agency that will recognize this as a legitimate crop,” said Whitney Cranshaw, a Colorado State University entomologist and pesticide expert. “Regulators just bury their heads, and as a result, pest-management information regarding this crop devolves to Internet chats and hearsay.”

Marijuana growers are indeed guessing when they treat their plants. If marijuana growers are guess then obviously marijuana smokers are guessing when they smoke American marijuana.

For example, one of the chemicals cited in the Denver quarantines, a fungicide called Eagle 20 EW, is commonly used on grapes and hops but can become dangerous when heated and is banned for use on tobacco. No research exists on whether the fungicide is safe to use on pot that will be eaten.

Several pot growers interviewed by The Associated Press agreed that research is needed on pesticides for pot. But they pointed out that pesticides are widely used on food crops, and that weed consumers have never before had as much information about the marijuana they buy.

“It’s just like broccoli or spinach or peaches or anything. The plant is susceptible to certain pests,” said Gabriel Fairorth, cultivation manager for Denver’s Herbal Remedies.

Fairorth does not use any banned chemicals on his plants and was not affected by the quarantines, but he questioned some of the banned chemicals.

“If you have all these chemicals that are safe on products you eat, but you can’t use them on marijuana, I don’t know that I agree with that.”

The founder of the nation’s oldest marijuana-legalization advocacy group, Keith Stroup of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, or NORML, pointed out that regulators today are at least starting to look at marijuana safety.

In the 1980s, the federal government used an herbicide called paraquat to kill illicit marijuana crops, even though the poison had been banned from national forests because of environmental concerns. NORML complained to the White House that some of that weed survived and was turning up on the street.

“The response was, ‘It’s illegal and we don’t have an obligation not to poison it,’” Stroup recalled. “No one was taking us seriously.”

Recent actions by states with legal weed have been encouraging, if slow, he said.

“The idea that it’s been on the black market and people are fine so therefore we don’t need testing is absurd,” Stroup said. “No one would want to be using a product that has molds or pesticides.”

Source –  18KaratReggae 

West Hollywood | Original Cannabis Cafe

In West Hollywood, customers can find a legal cannabis food spot, called Original Cannabis Cafe, owned by chef Andrea Drummer, making it the first in the country. This cafe is not for everyone, because in order to get a chance to eat at this cafe, customers must be 21-years-old to enter and can only stay for an hour and a half to keep reservations flowing. To say this cafe is popular is an understatement, it is also genius.

Lowell Cafe is not a gimmick — because while having the chance to smoke cannabis is a draw, the food is equally important, and will keep people coming back to the cafe. According to the Los Angeles Times, guests can enjoy the service of a flower host, or a “budtender” who will walk you through a cannabis guide that will essentially make your order suited to your tastes. What makes this café unique is that the uses flavor profiles in found in different strains of cannabis. 

Drummer, a Le Cordon Bleu-trained chef, has an Instagram that shows some of the food she prepares and checking out the café’s menu, hungry visitors can also enjoy items — like its Crispy Chicken, featuring brined Jidori chicken thigh, kale slaw and tomato and house pickles or its Pulled Pork, featuring pulled pork shoulder, market blueberry barbecue sauce, caramelized onions and kale slaw. 

The development of this restaurant came from a chef who has done the work of understanding cannabis cooking. Before Lowell Café, Drummer executive produced a project with Spotify called the Breaking Bread series, where people would consume a four to six course menu infused with cannabis. From there, she found her food home at Lowell, where their products matched her food style.

Chef Drummer is also the author of Cannabis Cuisine: Bud Pairings of a Born Again chef, so her knowledge about food and cannabis is well researched and approachable. For more information on Lowell Cafe, please follow its Instagram and be sure to follow chef Andrea Drummer on Instagram and if you are interested in her services, check out Elevation VIP.

Chicago Mayor Plans to Level Cannabis Market Playing Field

The move is motivated by complaints that new cannabis laws do not provide paths for Black and brown people to thrive in what appears to be a billion dollar industry

On Monday, Lightfoot said up to $15 million that is generated by tax-increment financing could serve as seed money for Black and brown Chicago residents to learn the business and “buy into” a city plan to open a “cooperative cultivation center,” according to the Chicago Sun-Times. Most importantly, the money could help minorities overcome their largest hurdle to getting involved in the industry: capital

READ MORE: Cannabis sales in Illinois hit nearly $3.2 million on first day of legalization

Currently, “the vast majority” of people who cultivate and run legalized marijuana businesses are white men, the mayor said.

“This is a very, very expensive business to get involved with. The basics to be a cultivator requires about a $13 million to $15 million investment. There are not a lot of people that have that, particularly in a market that a lot of banks and traditional lenders won’t touch,” Lightfoot said, according to the Sun-Times. “I think the only way to really crack this nut is for the city to invest its own resources to get engaged, get diverse entrepreneurs involved in the most lucrative part of the business, which is cultivation.”

“First of all, we’ve got to jump through the regulatory hoops. … Hopefully, we will get those roadblocks cleared. But I’m very serious about it,” the mayor added.

In December, Lightfoot first mentioned the concept of a city-owned cultivation center, in response to a threat from Jason Ervin, the City Council’s Black Caucus chairman, to delay the Jan. 1 start date for selling recreational weed in Chicago to July 1 due to lack of minority representation.

Ervin continues to be angry because Black people have paid the highest price in the war on drugs yet have “zero representation” among the owners of 11 medical marijuana dispensaries up and running on New Year’s Day.

Lightfoot believes if the city gets involved in the recreational marijuana business, it could open the doors to minority participation. “One of the things that every entrepreneur that’s a small businessperson faces is access to capital. There are some things that we can do using existing city resources to help facilitate that,” she explained, reported the Sun-Times.

READ MORE: Illinois city plans reparations fund for Black residents using cannabis revenue

“I’ve made no secret of the fact that I would like to have the opportunity for the city to create a cooperative cultivation center so we can bring a professional in, let the professionals run it. But then, people will buy into the cooperative — either with modest cash investment or sweat equity — and eventually, after they learn the business from top-to-bottom, turn that over to them,” Lightfoot added.

Source – TheGrio

Plant Growth Regulators

Plant growth regulators are molecules that influence the development of plants and are generally active at very low concentrations. There are natural regulators, which are produced by the plant itself, and also synthetic regulators; those found naturally in plants are called phytohormones or plant hormones.

Substances considered phytohormones include auxins, gibberelins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene, and more recently brassinosteroids, salicylic acid, jasmonates, systemin, polyamines, nitric oxide and signal peptides. In this article We take a closer look at auxins

There are differences between plant and animal hormones. For example, animal hormones are synthesized in particular organs or tissues, and by definition they act in different places to where they are produced. This is not necessarily true for phytohormones; some exert their action in exactly the smame place where they are synthesized.

Although all phytohormones have their own specific effects, their combination produces a varied response in plants.

An overview of which plant hormone is responsible for which plant process.

Auxins

The main effect of auxins is to cause cell elongation, mainly due to the alteration of cell wall plasticity. Auxins are synthesized in the apical meristems and to a lesser degree in the roots. The main auxin to be synthesized naturally by plants is indole acetic acid (IAA), although others have been found such as phenylacetic acid, the chlorindoles and, more recently, indole butyric acid (IBA).

The movement of these phytohormones is from the apices to the roots (basipetal) and vice versa (acropetal). However, basipetal movement is much more rapid than acropetal movement

Some of the effects of auxins in plants include:

Apical dominance. It is well known among growers that when one eliminates the main apical axis (main vertical stem) of a plant, secondary apices will begin to grow and several of these will go on to form main stems. This occurs because the auxins produced by the apical meristem suppresses the growth and development of secondary buds.

Rhizogenesis. Auxins are the main components responsible for the formation of root cells. This property is used by gardeners to produce cuttings: applying auxins to the base of the cut promotes the formation of new roots. This rhizogenesis occurs at very low concentrations of auxins, since higher concentrations of auxins suppress root growth and development. However, it is the presence of other phytohormones that determines whether the new cells become roots or other organs. The balance between auxins and cytokinins plays a very important role in this process. Thus when plant cells are grown in vitro in culture media, if the concentration of auxins is greater than that of cytokinins, new roots will be formed. However, if the concentration of cytokinins is greater than that of auxins, the cells will eventually develop into new buds. When the concentration of the two hormone types is similar, cell growth will occur without differentiation, forming a mass of developing cells called a callus.

Geotropism. Gravity exerts an effect on plant development. When a plant stem is placed in a horizontal position, lateral buds will begin to develop and may form roots in the zone which is in contact with the soil. This is due to the accumulation of auxins due to the effect of gravity. This phenomenon is used to obtain new plants using a technique called layering.

Phototropism. Plants tend to grow towards the light. This process is regulated by auxins, which accumulate in parts that receive less light; this results in the elongation of the cells in this zone and makes the stem curve towards the light. Further reading in: The effect of light spectrum on plant development.

Regulation of abscission. Abscission is the shedding of some parts of the plant. In many cases the cause is the aging of the plant tissue, called senescence. The exogenous application of auxins will reduce abscission in many species.

Phototropism is the growth of a plant in response to light. This process is regulated by auxins. A: when sunlight is overhead, the IAA molecules (Indole Acetic Acid; the main auxin to be synthesised naturally by plants) produced by the apical meristem are distributed evenly in the shoot. B: once the sunlight starts to reach the shoot at an angle, the IAA molecules move to the far side and induce elongation of cells on that side. C: cell elongation results in the bending of the shoot toward the light.

The Cannabis Group Helping People of Color Profit From Cannabis

Husband-and-wife co-founders Eddie and Sherra Armstrong want to help make medical cannabis profitable for people of color. The couple recently launched Cannabis Capital Group, a consulting firm that assists marijuana-based companies with the education, advocacy, and investment needed to compete in the space. 

“We want to be seen as public advocates for responsibility around cannabis: how you use it; how police officers treat it when they interact with people; and how you use it as medicine for your grandparents or if you’re an individual who’s received a medical cannabis card in the state of Illinois,” Armstrong said in a statement to The Network Journal. “We want to be able to provide that education channel with organizations such as Chicago NORML and the National Cannabis Industry Association that are already providing those tools to communities. More importantly, we want to serve minority communities that might not be able to get the same education or go online and find the same information that other people can readily find.”

The market is projected to be an $80 billion business by 2030 according to the site, yet, blacks own less than 4% of the companies created in comparison to the 81% of cannabis businesses owned by whites, according to Marijuana Business Daily. 

The Armstrongs also plan to roll out a crowdfunding platform to allow investors to get involved. “Think of a product maker, for example, who creates a product used for the treatment of seizures,” Armstrong continued. “As these new companies start up and bring products to the marketplace, Cannabis Capital Group plans to be the conduit between the startup business and investors who might not regularly invest in these types of opportunities.” These investors will include physicians, pharmacists, nutritionists, and veterinarians with whom they have already built relationships.

Source – BlackEnteprise