Tag Archives: oxygen

Oxygen on Rosettas Comet?

Ah, Rosetta, everyone’s favourite comet orbiter. The European Space Agency spacecraft that made a splash when it launched a lander onto the surface of Comet 67P is continuing to gather scientific data about its target, and today researchers announced an unexpected exciting discovery: molecular oxygen.

Rosetta’s ROSINA instrument—a mass spectrometer—detected O2 in the icy body’s coma, the cloud of gas and dust and other space stuff around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. More exciting still, the researchers behind the find, which was published Wednesday in Nature, reckon the O2 is “primordial” oxygen, i.e. that it came from the cloud of molecules from which our Solar System was formed.

In a phone call, lead author André Bieler explained the team found a strong signal of oxygen early on in the Rosetta mission. “But we were so surprised that we initially didn’t know exactly what to do, or why it would be there, and what to do with it, so we decided to just keep monitoring for a while and see what happens.”

So why is it such an exciting find? Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, but while it’s been detected on some icy bodies in the Solar System, such as planets’ moons, it’d only ever been found in two interstellar clouds, and never in a comet. “No one was expecting it to be there,” said Bieler of the team’s finding.

Image: ESA/Rosetta/Navcam

The researchers observed 67P’s coma from September 2014 to March 2015 and saw a mean value of 3.8 percent molecular oxygen. What’s most important, however, is that this didn’t change as the comet continued onward and approached the Sun. Bieler explained that if the oxygen was only on the surface of the comet, they would have seen a decrease in the ratio of oxygen as the comet burned up and lost gas.

They write that “the preferred explanation of our observations is the incorporation of primordial O2 into the cometary nucleus.”

The presence of this oxygen in the comet’s nucleus suggests it was there when the comet was formed—and was therefore present in the molecular cloud that birthed the planets (as comets are basically leftover material).

“I think we have to kind of rethink our models.”

This adds to our knowledge of the early days of the Solar System—or at least questions it. “Current Solar System formation models do not predict conditions that would allow this to occur,” the authors note.

“One implication is that the accretion [the coming-together of cosmic dust to form the comet] had to be pretty gentle in order for the O2 in the ice to survive,” Bieler explained. “Otherwise I think we have to kind of rethink our models.”

Next, Bieler said they’d like to look at the southern hemisphere of 67P; these new measurements come from the northern hemisphere, as that side facing the Sun (Rosetta is powered by solar arrays). In the future, he said we should also look at other comets for comparison. The Rosetta mission is of course unique in its close targeting of a comet, and previous cometary missions haven’t had the technology capable of detecting oxygen.

The new paper is an example of one of the major scientific aims of the Rosetta mission: using the comet as something of an interstellar time capsule to explore the early days of our own Solar System.

Source: Motherboard

Phytoplankton

Fish, whales, dolphins, crabs, seabirds, and just about everything else that makes a living in or off of the oceans owe their existence to phytoplankton, one-celled plants that live at the ocean surface.

Phytoplankton are at the base of what scientists refer to as oceanic biological productivity, the ability of a water body to support life such as plants, fish, and wildlife.

“A measure of productivity is the net amount of carbon dioxide taken up by phytoplankton,” said Jorge Sarmiento, a professor of atmospheric and ocean sciences at Princeton University in New Jersey.

The one-celled plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and nutrients into complex organic compounds, which form new plant material. This process, known as photosynthesis, is how phytoplankton grow.

Herbivorous marine creatures eat the phytoplankton. Carnivores, in turn, eat the herbivores, and so on up the food chain to the top predators like killer whales and sharks.

But how does the ocean supply the nutrients that phytoplankton need to survive and to support everything else that makes a living in or off the ocean? Details surrounding that answer are precisely what Sarmiento hopes to learn.

Robert Frouin, a research meteorologist with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, said understanding the process by which phytoplankton obtains ocean nutrients is important to understanding the link between the ocean and global climate.

“Marine biogeochemical processes both respond to and influence climate,” Frouin said. “A change in phytoplankton abundance and species may result from changes in the physical processes controlling the supply of nutrients and sunlight availability.”

Oxygen Supply

Phytoplankton need two things for photosynthesis and thus their survival: energy from the sun and nutrients from the water. Phytoplankton absorb both across their cell walls.

In the process of photosynthesis, phytoplankton release oxygen into the water. Half of the world’s oxygen is produced via phytoplankton photosynthesis. The other half is produced via photosynthesis on land by trees, shrubs, grasses, and other plants.

Continue reading the full article at  National Geographic 

Prahlad Jani The Breatharian

Prahlad Jani, also known as “Mataji“, (born Chunriwala Mataji, 13 August 1929) is an Indian sadhu. He claims to have lived without food and water since 1940, and says that the goddess Amba sustains him.

Born Chunriwala Mataji, Jani grew up in Charada village in Mehsana district.[1] According to Jani, he left his home in Rajasthan at the age of seven, and went to live in the jungle.

At the age of 11, Jani underwent a religious experience and became a follower of the Hindu goddess Amba. From that time, he chose to dress as a female devotee of Amba, wearing a red sari-like garment, jewellery and crimson flowers in his shoulder-length hair.  Jani is commonly known as Mataji (“[a manifestation of] The Great Mother”). Jani believes that the goddess provides him a liquid sustenance[2] or water, which drops down through a hole in his palate, allowing him to live without food or water. 

 

Since the 1970s, Jani has lived as a hermit in a cave in the rainforest near the Gujarati temple of Ambaji, awakening at 4am each day and spending most of his time meditating. 

One thing I found interesting and was able to make a connection to was when they were speaking of looking at the sun. I have read that the geometrical pattern in leafs is the same pattern which is in our eyes to receive light  -Flower of Life Vol 2. We receive light to communicate images to ourself but have we forgotten the real power to transfer energy from the sun. imagine a time we could live without food or water… interesting. 

 

Pranayama: The Nose Knows

The topic of breathing and pranayama (the practice that works to direct the movement of life force) is a fascinating one.

Exhaling through the mouth can be beneficial in that it allows for a greater volume of air to be released at once and may help your jaw to relax. We all do this naturally when we are exasperated, tired, or weary. Take a breath in, then breathe out with a soft, sighing sound: You will feel your shoulders release, and as your jaw releases, your tongue will relax down into the base of the mouth, creating a quieting effect on your mind.16963-122

However, in most instances, it’s preferable to breathe through your nose. There are several reasons for this.

The first reason is that the nose does much more than just let air in and out. There are texts that claim it performs more than 30 functions, such as containing the receptors for smell, filtering out dirt and pathogens, and moisturizing and warming incoming air.

The yogic viewpoint is less concerned with the mechanical functions of the nose and breath and more interested in the process of how our breathing affects the nervous system. The ancient texts describe a network of subtle channels, called nadis, the three most important of which originate at the base of the spine. The ida flows to the left nostril, the pingala flows to the right nostril, and thesushumna is the central channel and balance point of the other two.nadis

The ancient yogis were able to map out thousands of these channels, not through dissection of the body, but through intense practice of introspection and awareness development of both the gross and subtle levels of the body-mind. Current research supports the yogic observations.

The reason that nose breathing is more effective in creating energy changes is that when you breathe in or out through your nose, you stimulate the olfactory nerve; this impulse is then passed on to the hypothalamus, which is connected to the pineal gland, which is associated with the third eye area—seat of the “sat guru,” inner wisdom. Some say the ida and pingala interlace their way up the sushumna and end somewhere in the sinus chambers; others say that they end in the “third eye.” When you breathe through your nose, you are helping to open and balance the sushumna and quiet and steady the mind.

For more helpful information go to the Yoga Journal 

Sea of Discovery , Ocean of Possibility

To date, we have explored less than five percent of the ocean

The ocean is the lifeblood of Earth, covering more than 70 percent of the planet’s surface, driving weather, regulating temperature, and ultimately supporting all living organisms. Throughout history, the ocean has been a vital source of sustenance, transport, commerce, growth, and inspiration.

Yet for all of our reliance on the ocean, 95 percent of this realm remains unexplored, unseen by human eyes.

Source

How does the moon really effect us?

All objects including stars, planets and satellite bodies along with their gross (tangible) attributes emanate subtle (intangible) frequencies. These physical attributes and subtle-frequencies affect us in varying degrees at a physical and subtle-level.-moon-a

The frequencies emanating from the Moon affect the frequencies of the mental body, i.e. mind of human beings. By ‘mind’ we mean our feelings, emotions and desires. The mind consists of the conscious mind and the sub-conscious mind. Within the sub-conscious mind we have a number of impressions that are embedded that decide our basic nature and personality. We are however not aware of the thoughts or impressions in our sub-conscious mind. These impressions get collected over a number of lifetimes.

These impressions in our mind are the catalysts for all our thoughts and subsequent actions. Both the impressions and our thoughts have their own subtle-frequencies.

Image

The moon frequencies have the capacity to make the thought frequencies from the impressions in our sub-conscious mind to surface to the conscious mind. Once in the conscious mind we become aware of them. Thus one will be influenced as per the predominant impressions in one’s mind. We have explained this in more detail in the next section.

Similarly the moon also affects the mind of animals. However as the sub-conscious mind of animals consists of impressions related only to basic desires such as hunger, sex, sleep etc., the heightened thoughts are related to these basic instincts only.

Read The Full Articles: Sources Sciences360,  Spiritual Research Foundation

Knowledge is power, Be strong!