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How To Make Reishi Mushroom Tincture

Reishi Mushrooms. You have probably heard them being touted as a great medicinal mushroom and a wonderful healer. Well, I’m not going to tell you anything different. Reishi is kind of a big deal.

REISHI HISTORY

Reishi is known as Ling Zhi, which means “spirit plant” or “tree of life mushroom” in Chinese spoken word, and the Chinese characters literally translate to “shaman praying for rain.” Those names should give you an idea of how truly powerful the reishi mushroom is. It was seen as such an important herb in ancient times that it can be found in art depicting Emperors and on temple walls in the hands of the gods and goddesses of old.

WHERE DO THEY GROW?

Reishi grows on decaying hardwood deciduous trees and is native to China. It’s pretty rare to find them in the wild, so people have taken to cultivating these magical friends. It comes in a whole variety of colors, but the red one is considered the most medicinal of them all.

what does reishi mushroom do for us?

Reishi is considered a three vital tonic. That means that it helps protect and build the Jing, raises the Qi, and deeply supports the Shen of our personal energies. These three aspects of our energy are the keys to life.

The Jing is the energy that we’re born with and the energy that we lose when we’re dying. The Qi takes care of the Jing and keeps it safe from the difficulties that we deal with in his life. The Shen is representative of the larger self and spiritual journey. Wow! No wonder our red mushroom friend is such a big deal.

ADAPTOGENIC PROPERTIES

Reishi is an adaptogen. That means it helps our bodies adjust to the environment that we’re in. It’s great for adrenal fatigue (stress) because it helps us to stay calm in stressful situations – the ancients say that it “calms the spirit.”

It’s anti-inflammatory, a heart and liver protective tonic, and a super antioxidant. Long term use of reishi is considered to promote longevity and keep a person’s agility intact into the later parts of life.

reishi mushroom for immunity

reishi mushroom for immunity

Because they have lots of bioavailable polysaccharides in them, Reishi mushrooms are great for immunity. Polysaccharides are long-chain sugar molecules that help function as building blocks for our bodies and serve as an energy reserve.

HOW DO THEY WORK?

Studies have shown that the polysaccharides in the reishi help build the immune system by activating our immune cells (T-lymphocytes) and increasing phagocytosis, a process where good cells in our body engulf pathogens that could make us sick.

A POWERFUL IMMUNE BUILDER

It also helps increase immune response and causes non-specific activation of the system under attack. Just to add a little bit of the “spirit plant” back into to all this science, that means that the reishi knows what part of your body is being affected, gets in there, brings reinforcements, heals your soldier cells and gives energy to your depleted system. I don’t know about you, but that’s the type of support we want.

All of this basically means that reishi builds and protects our immune systems with one hand tied behind its back (er.. mycelium?).

how to use reishi mushroom for immunity

Reishi isn’t delicious. While it is technically an edible mushroom, it’s almost impossible to eat because it’s tough like leathery wood. Don’t buy the whole mushroom unless you’re using it for decoration or you have some serious grinding tools.

I actually broke a coffee grinder and a pair of scissors trying to cut up a whole mushroom for medicine – that’s a personal problem, I know, but it’s good for you to know so that you don’t make the same mistake.

OPT FOR SLICES

Reishi slices on the other hand make beautiful medicine, and you can snap them apart with your bare hands.

Traditionally, reishi is used in tea or in tincture. I personally tincture it but a tea is perfectly fine too. The taste is very bitter and a lot like a common mushroom.

reishi mushroom for immunity

FOR TEA

  1. Take 1-2 large reishi slices and put them in about a quart of water on the stove. You can add other herbs too if you want; licorice root is great because it adds a sweet note to the bitterness.
  2. Let the water boil for at least 15 minutes.
  3. You can let it boil for a very long time, just make sure to add more water as it evaporates off. You can also do this in a crockpot on high for a few hours and it works wonderfully.
  4. Strain it off and drink it when it’s cool!

TO TINCTURE

You need to extract reishi in two different ways. It’s just so special that you need two different methods to pull out all of the bioavailable love. Traditionally, this is an alcohol extraction and a hot water extraction. I know this is a little advanced, but (at risk of being cheesy) if it’s worth doing, it’s worth doing right!

  1. Fill a pint or a quart mason jar with broken or ground reishi.
  2. Pour 2-3 cups of the highest proof of alcohol over it that you have (whiskey or vodka is fine) and set it somewhere out of the way.
  3. Let it sit for at least two weeks, shake it and give it love energy everyday.
  4. Strain out your tincture and set the alcohol aside – DON’T THROW IT OUT, THIS IS YOUR TINCTURE!
  5. Put the reishi mark (that’s what you have left over from the alcohol extraction) into a pot of water and boil it. It’s like making a tea, but you want the water to evaporate off this time. I start with about a quart of water and boil it down to about a cup but it can be up to 2 cups.
  6. Strain the water into the jar that you want your tincture to stay in and compost the reishi (don’t forget to say thank you to your spent herb!).
  7. When your reishi water is cool, slowly pour the reishi alcohol that you made into the water. Tip: Polysaccharides don’t like alcohol and they can come out of solution if you pour the water extraction into the alcohol extraction or if the overall alcohol content is higher than 40%

WHAT ARE THE SOLID FORMS IN MY TINCTURE?

If you see little solids form in your reishi when you combine the alcohol and water that’s okay. Those little guys are the polysaccharides reacting with the alcohol. Just shake it before you use it and you’ll still get all the benefits that reishi will give you!

Voila! A beautiful reishi tincture that will last forever! You can take a dropperful of this guy daily. It’s not an immediate fix to sickness because it’s not fast acting. This is something that you take small amounts of everyday and it helps you to not get sick in the first place (and it works!).

 

Sources:
Rogers, R. (2011). The fungal pharmacy: The complete guide to medicinal mushrooms and lichens of North America. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

Essiac Tea Benefits

Essiac tea is an herbal drink that is made from four ingredients: burdock root, Indian rhubarb root, sheep sorrel, and slippery elm. Flor-Essence is a similar blend of herbs that contains the primary ingredients of Essiac tea plus four others: watercress, blessed thistle, red clover, and kelp. Both Essiac tea and Flor-Essence are widely reported to provide numerous healing benefits but published scientific studies do not support those claims.

What Is Essiac Tea?

Essiac tea is an herbal compound with a rich history. The original blend was made famous by Rene Caisse,1 a nurse who set up a clinic in Bainbridge, Ontario, Canada, to help cancer patients with the tonic. (Essiac is Caisse spelled backward.)

Caisse did not develop the blend herself but rather received it from an acquaintance who claimed that using the tonic cured her breast cancer. The original blend is said to be a traditional Ojibwa remedy, but Caisse made it famous with her work that continued into the 1970s.

In its original proportions, the herbal formulation is trademarked and sold by a Canadian company. But there are many Essiac-like teas and products sold online and in stores.

There are four basic Essiac tea ingredients:

  • Burdock root (Arctium lappaArctium majus) is a large herbaceous plant of the daisy family. It is purported to treat cancer, lower blood sugar, promote urination, reduce wrinkles, and provide other benefits.
  • Indian rhubarb root (Rheum palmatumRheum officinale) is said to provide relief from a variety of symptoms such as constipation and fever. It is also believed to treat cancer, treat infections, and boost the immune system.
  • Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) is said to treat cancer, diarrhea, and reduce fever or inflammation.
  • Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) is believed to reduce coughing or bronchitis, treat diarrhea, and ease irritable bowel syndrome.

The original formula of Essaic tea has been kept a secret since the sale of the recipe to a private company and is the subject of some debate.

Some say the ingredient proportions and method of consumption are important keys to getting the full benefits from the tea.

A quick internet search for a basic Essiac tea recipe provides several variations of the blend, but the most common is:

  • 1.5 pounds burdock root
  • 1 pound powdered sheep sorrel
  • 1/4 pound slippery elm
  • 1 pound Turkish rhubarb root

The ingredients are mixed together and stored in a glass container away from light. To make the tea, boiled, unchlorinated water is poured over the herbs and steeped for 12 hours. Proponents recommend drinking a 2-ounce serving, unheated, typically before bed,

Essiac Tea Benefits

According to some companies who sell the tea and other supporters, the benefits of Essiac tea include cancer treatment and prevention, HIV and AIDS treatment, immune system support, and diabetes therapy. Consumers who are not battling illness might use the tea as a detoxifying elixir or as a general health tonic. These claims, however, are not supported by peer-reviewed, published literature.

In the 1970s, investigators at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (with the cooperation of Caisse) began a study on mice to try to verify Essiac tea health claims. Unfortunately, the findings were never published and questions were raised about the research methodology. Caisse later refused to provide the original formulation to researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering or to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, making future investigations difficult.2

Later human studies were attempted in Canada, but those investigations were halted by the Canadian government due to concerns over poor study design and formulation.

According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, there is “no controlled data available from human studies to suggest that Essiac or Flor-Essence can be effective in the treatment of patients with cancer.” It further notes, “some evidence suggests that Flor-Essence may increase tumor formation in an animal model of breast cancer.”

Despite the lack of scientific evidence and warnings from some health agencies, Essiac tea remains extremely popular and widely available for sale.

Essiac Tea Side Effects

While there is very little evidence to support Essiac tea benefits, there is some evidence regarding side effects. Drinking this herbal compound or the similar Flor-Essence may cause increased bowel movements, frequent urination, swollen glands, skin blemishes, flu-like symptoms, or slight headaches.3

Other sources express concern over the tannins present in burdock, sorrel, rhubarb, and slippery elm. Consumers may experience stomach problems if the tea is consumed in high doses and the tannins may lead to kidney or liver damage.4 Experts add that long-term use of tannins may increase the risk of head and neck cancers, although there are no documented human cases.

Burdock may increase or decrease blood sugar levels, which may be harmful to Essiac tea drinkers with diabetes or hypoglycemia. And oxalic acid (in rhubarb, slippery elm, and sorrel) may cause nausea, vomiting, mouth/throat burning, dangerously low blood pressure, blood electrolyte imbalances, seizure, throat swelling that interferes with breathing, and liver or kidney damage when consumed in large doses.

Scientists Discover Fungus That Collects Gold From Its Environment

The Australian fungus could help miners find the next generation of underground gold deposits

The fungus picks up gold from its surroundings, oxidizes it, and then transforms the dissolved element back into a solid state (CSIRO)

By Meilan Solly

SMITHSONIANMAG.COM
MAY 28, 2019

Afluffy pink fungus with long, thread-like tendrils encrusted in gold particles could help prospectors mine the precious element, a team of Australian researchers report in the journal Nature Communications.

As Mindy Weisberger explains for Live Science, the fungus—a strain of the species Fusarium oxysporum—relies on chemical interactions with underground minerals to collect gold from its surroundings. The organism then oxidizes gold before using yet another chemical to transform the dissolved element into tiny, nanoscale particles of solid gold. Gold particles produced by this process cling to the fungus, enabling spores to grow faster and larger than their non-gold covered counterparts.

The team suspects that gold also serves as a catalyst, helping the fungus digest certain carbon foods, as the study’s lead author Tsing Bohu, a geo-microbiologist at Australia’s national science agency, CSIRO, explained in an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Company’s Anna Salleh. Moving forward, Bohu says the researchers hope to use the fungus, which was found in the gold fields of western Australia, as a tracker of sorts. If spores are present in a certain area, for instance, miners may be able to narrow down the locations in which they undertake exploratory drilling.

“Fungi are well-known for playing an essential role in the degradation and recycling of organic material, such as leaves and bark, as well as for the cycling of other metals, including aluminium, iron, manganese and calcium,” Bohu explains in a CSIRO press release. “But gold is so chemically inactive that this interaction is both unusual and surprising—it had to be seen to be believed.”

According to Rebecca Le May of the Australian Associated PressF. oxysporum appears to grow larger and spread faster than fungi not known to interact with gold, which means there could be a biological advantage to being covered in gold. Still, many details surrounding the singular fungus remain unclear; as Le May writes, Bohu plans on conducting additional analysis to better understand the organism’s relationship with gold and determine whether the fungus’ presence is indicative of a large underground deposit.

Australia is the world’s second largest gold producer, but predictions suggest the industry will soon be in trouble if new gold deposits are not found. In a press release, study co-author and CSIRO chief research scientist Ravi Anand notes that miners are already using exploratory techniques, including sampling termite mounds and gum leaves, to support the industry. It’s possible, he says, that the newly described fungus can be used in conjunction with these tools to “target prospective areas in a way that’s less impactful and more cost-effective than drilling.”

Overall, ABC’s Salleh reports, the fungus could help Australia’s gold mining industry in a number of ways: In addition to using the organism to detect gold in underground deposits, miners may be able to use it to recover gold from waste products such as sewage and manmade electronics.

Expanding on the science behind the fungus-gold interaction, Joel Brugger, a geochemist at Monash University who was not involved in the new study, tells Salleh that F. oxysporum may act as a “lovely pathway,” transporting gold from the depths of the planet to more shallow, mineable soil. To accomplish this, the fungus oxidizes the element, making it lose electrons, grow more soluble, and, finally, move closer to the Earth’s surface.

Brugger concludes, “The fungus may be really critical in mobilising the gold.”

3 Reasons Why Big Pharma Hates the Threat of Psychedelic Medicine

3 Reasons Why Big Pharma Hates the Threat of Psychedelic Medicine and 1 Company That’s Facing Them Head On

  • The First Drug in the Psychedelics Space, Ketamine-Based Spravato By J&J Was Approved Last Year
  • At $6,700 a Month, Spravato is Expected to Generate Well North of $1.3 Billion Annually (Jefferies) and is a Life Raft for Big Pharma Considering No New Major Depression Medications Have Been Approved in Decades
  • Drugs Based on Psilocybin (Magic Mushrooms) and MDMA Have Been Granted Breakthrough Status By the FDA
  • These Psychedelic Compounds Will Be Used to Treat Conditions Such as Depression, PTSD and Substance Abuse
  • Each One of These Ailments Represents a Potential Blockbuster Drug, Which is a More Permanent Treatment, in a World Where Consumers Want a Solution That “Fixes the Problem” Rather Than “Temporarily Patching” it

The potential for psychedelic drugs to be used to treat a host of mental disorders is quickly changing society’s attitude toward these very misunderstood substances. Earlier this month, a bill to decriminalize psychedelic “magic mushrooms” was introduced to the legislature of the state of New York. If the bill passes, it will make New York the first state to decriminalize the drug.

With magic mushrooms already successfully decriminalized in a few major cities, such as Oakland, there is a large amount of momentum right now, and companies have been rushing to enter this newly forming space. The rise of psychedelics has large pharmaceutical companies very worried, as their existing medications could be threatened by potentially superior psychedelic drugs.

Champignon Brands (CSE: SHRM) (OTCQB: SHRMF) (FRA: 496) is one company that believes they have the tools necessary to develop industry-threatening drugs. The companies that will be most successful in developing psychedelic medications will be those that build a strong foundation in drug formulation and clinical studies; Champignon has both of these in spades.

Through a series of acquisitions, Champignon has quickly established one of the world’s most advanced psychedelic drug development programs. The company’s drug development program has three distinct attributes that will provide shareholder value.

Champignon Brands – Recent Developments

Source: Champignon

💡Also Read: U.S. Cannabis Leader Red White & Bloom Shines in CSE Debut, the Monster of the Midwest Has Arrived

Insurance Companies Are Funding Clinical Studies

Champignon Brands knows that running clinical studies on drugs is incredibly expensive. To avoid these costs, the company has a chain of clinics where patients will go to receive treatments for their ailments. These clinics will specialize in different disorders, including depression, concussions, PTSD and addiction, and will be able to prescribe and administer drugs formulated by Champignon Brands using active ingredients included in medications currently on the market.

For example, Champignon will be able to acquire Ketamine from drug manufacturers, then use that Ketamine as one part of a new drug. These bespoke drugs will be designed and formulated by the company’s subsidiary in a GMP certified facility, distributed by compounding pharmacies for manufacturing and then administered at the clinics. Patients will then report their effects to their doctor.

Big pharma hates compounding as they are required by law to provide the API’s, or active pharmaceutical ingredients, to doctors and pharmacists looking to experiment and create new drug entities. They can use these new variations on humans because the base is created with FDA approved medications. The human data they collect can be compiled along with the formulation and delivery method to file a patent. It’s like tweaking a high-end Ford Mustang right before they come out with a much faster model; they can beat them to the punch.

These so-called “chart reviews” will allow Champignon to find the optimal combination of drug and delivery method to move forward with more rigorous clinical trials. In addition to being able to test a wide variety of drugs on a wide variety of ailments, these chart review studies are not paid for by the company. Instead, the patients are paying for their medications and treatments via their insurance companies. Champignon is effectively using insurance companies to help fund its drug development.

Champignon’s Brightest Minds Are Curing People Instead of Just Treating Them

Champignon’s clinics rely on the effective administration of carefully formulated drugs. The company has established a world-class team of scientists and doctors to bring its drugs to market. The world’s preeminent authority on mood disorders, Dr. Roger McIntyre, was recently appointed CEO of Champignon Brands. In addition to his role at Champignon, Dr. McIntyre is a professor and head of the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University of Toronto.

Dr. McIntyre came to the company when Champignon purchased the company he founded, AltMed Capital Corp. Dr. McIntyre’s clinic possesses the only license for Psilocybin in all of Canada and was the first and only clinic to conduct randomized controlled trials under Health Canada approval. Dr. McIntyre operates the Canadian Rapid Treatment Centre of Excellence (CRTCE clinic), which is dedicated to using Ketamine and Psilocybin to treat a variety of issues. The CRTCE clinic has thus far treated over 300 patients.

Early reports from Dr. McIntyre’s research has shown very promising results thus far, with patients reporting life-changing results, sometimes with as few as one dosage of the drug. Dr. Roger McIntyre states that, with periodic maintenance, at least 60% of people who undergo Ketamine therapy for refractory depression at his clinic report relief from symptoms for one year or more.

Ketamine is being reported as a more permanent treatment for depression because of how it works in the brain. Both traditional anti-depressants and Ketamine work by enabling the signalling mechanism in the brain to transfer the “feel good” chemicals from neuron to neuron. In depressed people, the helper protein, or the g protein, hides inside the neuron, refusing to help. When anti-depressants or Ketamine are administered, the g protein is forced to help, enabling the serotonin transmission from neuron to neuron-like an aide on a life raft reaching out to help others aboard—The only difference is after drugs like Prozac or Zoloft wear off the little man disappears—with Ketamine that helper sticks around well after the drugs are gone.

Source: Shutterstock

Champignon’s drug development program relies heavily on its proprietary drug delivery platforms. The technology was developed by Novo Formulations, which Champignon acquired in March. The platforms enable the more effective delivery of Ketamine, Psilocybin (magic mushrooms) and MDMA (the active ingredient in ecstasy or molly), allowing Novo to develop transdermal, intranasal and sublingual applications that can be filled with the active drug of their choice. These different delivery methods will give Champignon additional options in drugs to bring to market.

To kick start its Psilocybin drug development efforts, Champignon acquired Tassili Life Sciences Corp. Tassili has been partnering with the University of Miami to conduct pre-clinical studies on the efficacy of using Psilocybin to treat traumatic brain injuries and PTSD. The research has already yielded four provisional patents and will help form the basis for Champignon’s use of these drugs in its various clinics.

If You Can’t Beat Them, Buy Them

Drug development is a long, expensive and often fruitless pursuit. Carefully formulated drugs might work wonders in lab rats but fail in human subjects. Those drugs that do show efficacy must undergo years of human clinical trials, where their benefits are weighed against their risks. Often, the bad outweighs the good, and the drug is a failure—and can also take upwards of 10 years and cost $1 billion. This is the reason why most large pharmaceutical companies acquire their drugs by buying the intellectual property for drugs that have already undergone rigorous scientific study. Doing so helps ensure that they’re only investing in those drugs that have the best potential to make it to market.

Should Champignon Brands manage to develop the makings of a marketable drug, it’s a near certainty that the company will be able to sell its medicine to the highest bidder. The price would be determined by the market size and efficacy of the drug itself, which are both highlights of Champignon’s plans. Early results have shown that the initial versions of these drugs are having great success in treating widespread issues. The global market for psychedelic medicine is estimated at more than $5 billion on the low end, meaning any potential buyout would be quite lucrative for Champignon Brands and its shareholders.

Source: Shutterstock

Stock Chart, YTD Performance & Research Links

Champignon Brands (CSE: SHRM) | YTD Performance:

  • Mar 2/20 | Open: $0.195
  • May 15/20 | Close: $1.86
  • YTD Gain: +853.85%
  • 52-Week High: $2.14

Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses

Based on the response to our last few articles about gun ownership and firearms training, it’s clear that there’s a large demand for information about Black owned gun stores and firearms training businesses across the country.

Here’s a list of some of those businesses. We’ll keep updating it so let us know which other businesses should be added.

Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses


FIREARMS TRAINING


Gladiator Gunz Training Group | New Braunfels, TX 

black owned gun stores and firearms training
GLADIATOR GUNZ TRAINING GROUP

2 Swords Tactical & Defense | Lithonia, GA

2 SWORDS TACTICAL & DEFENSE

Skips Defense Solutions | Louisville, KY 

Taurean Strategies |Hallandale, FL

TAUREAN STRATEGIES

The EDC Guy Academy| Miami, FL

THE EDC GUY ACADEMY

Alpha 1 Tactical |Tulsa, OK 

black owned gun stores and firearms training
ALPHA 1 TACTICAL

Angel Arms NOLA | New Orleans, LA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
ANGEL ARMS NOLA

Girls Get Tactical | Hollywood, FL

black owned gun stores and firearms training
GIRLS GET TACTICAL

Body By “O” Tactical | Grand Prairie, TX

BODY BY “O” TACTICAL

Provectus Group |Taylorsville, GA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
PROVECTUS GROUP

My Sisters Keeper Defense Training|Atlanta, GA

Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses
MY SISTERS KEEPER DEFENSE TRAINING

The Don Firearms |Boston, MA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
THE DON FIREARMS

Tutor for Shooters | Rosenberg, TX

TUTOR FOR SHOOTERS

GIRLZ on F.I.R.E. | High Point, NC

GIRLZ ON F.I.R.E.

RideOrDie Gun Training | Cincinnati, OH

RIDEORDIE GUN TRAINING

JMD Defense | Chicago, IL

JMD DEFENSE

Train 2 Fight | Philadelphia, PA

TRAIN 2 FIGHT

M-W Tactical | Columbia, SC

M-W TACTICAL
BLACK ROOTS TRAINING ACADEMY
Apex Defense Solutions | Detroit, MI

Fluid Loading With Salt Water

MICHAEL HEIKO

Before a marathon or other long race, you make sure your energy stores are as full as possible by carb-loading. But what about your fluid stores? Is it possible to “hydration-load”? If you just drink a bunch of water a few hours before your race, that will stimulate your need to urinate, and you won’t retain any of the extra water (assuming you’re already well-hydrated). But you may be able to circumvent this urge by adding a little salt to your water, which changes the osmolality of your blood and in turn affects levels of the hormones that make you need to pee. There’s a downside, though, as every shipwrecked mariner has discovered: drinking saltwater doesn’t make your stomach feel good.

So is there an ideal balance that allows you to add extra water stores without getting the runs? That’s what a new dose-response study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology, from researchers at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, aimed to find out. They fed eight volunteers about a liter of fluid over an hour, varying the sodium concentrations, while monitoring changes in fluid balance, plasma volume, and digestive comfort. The sodium concentrations were 0 (i.e. water), 60 mmol/L (similar to World Health Organization oral rehydration solutions), 120 mmol/L, and 180 mmol/L (similar to concentrations that have given the highest increase in plasma volume in previous studies.

Here’s what the changes in plasma volume and overall fluid balance looked like:

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Only the two highest doses of sodium produced statistically significant elevations in plasma volume two hours after the drinking started (though you can see that the lower sodium dose did produce “intermediate” values). Not coincidentally, only the two highest sodium doses produced diarrhea in the subjects — 1 of 8 subjects had it with 120 mmol/L, and 6 of 8 with the highest dose of 180 mmol/L. The conclusion: 120 mmol/L of sodium provides the best balance between boosting plasma volume and not having to visit the portapotty, at least in a protocol that involves drinking 1 liter of water in six equal doses between 120 and 60 minutes before the race.

So does this actually improve performance? In theory, higher plasma volume should help you pump oxgyen to your muscles more efficiently, thus boosting performance. In practice, it’s worth remembering that (a) you’ll be carrying a bit of extra weight, (b) even without diarrhea, a mildly upset stomach could interfere with performance, and mostly importantly (c) individual responses vary. It’s also worth noting that, even at the higher sodium levels, the subjects peed out between a third and half of the water they drank — that could certainly be a hassle in the final minutes before a race, let alone during the race.

***

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Earth Power: Hemp Batteries Better Than Lithium And Graphene

 Henry Ford’s Model T was famously made partly from hemp bioplastic and powered by hemp biofuel. Now, with battery-powered vehicles starting to replace those that use combustion engines, it has been found that hemp batteries perform eight times better than lithium-ion. Is there anything that this criminally-underused plant can’t do?

The comparison has only been proven on a very small scale. (You weren’t expecting a Silicon Valley conglomerate to do something genuinely groundbreaking were you? They mainly just commercialise stuff that’s been invented or at least funded by the state.) But the results are extremely promising.

The experiment was conducted by Robert Murray Smith – who has built up quite a following on his YouTube channel – of FWG Ltd in Kent. He observed a Volts by Amps curve of both the hemp and lithium batteries and found that the power underneath the hemp cell was a value of 31 while that of the lithium cell had a value of just 4. Although he does not claim to have proven anything, he said that the results of his experiment showed that the performance of the hemp cell is “significantly better” than the lithium cell.

It comes as no real surprise, which is presumably why he conducted the experiment. In 2014, scientists in the US found that waste fibres – ‘shiv’ – from hemp crops can be transformed into “ultrafast” supercapacitors that are “better than graphene”. Graphene is a synthetic carbon material lighter than foil yet bulletproof, but it is prohibitively expensive to make. The hemp version isn’t just better, it costs one-thousandth of the price.

The scientists “cooked” leftover bast fibre – the inner bark of the plant that usually ends up in landfill – into carbon nanosheets in a process called hydrothermal synthesis. “People ask me: why hemp? I say, why not?” said Dr David Mitlin of Clarkson University, New York, in an interview with the BBC. “We’re making graphene-like materials for a thousandth of the price – and we’re doing it with waste.”

Dr Mitlin’s team recycled the fibres into supercapacitors, energy storage devices which are transforming the way electronics are powered. While conventional batteries store large reservoirs of energy and drip-feed it slowly, supercapacitors can rapidly discharge their entire load.

This makes them ideal in machines that require sharp bursts of power. In electric cars, for example, supercapacitors are used for regenerative braking. Releasing this torrent requires electrodes with high surface area, one of graphene’s many phenomenal properties.

Mitlin says that “you can do really interesting things with bio-waste”. With banana peels, for example, “you can turn them into a dense block of carbon – we call it pseudo-graphite – and that’s great for sodium-ion batteries. But if you look at hemp fibre its structure is the opposite – it makes sheets with high surface area – and that’s very conducive to supercapacitors.”

Once the bark has been cooked, “you dissolve the lignin and the semicellulose, and it leaves these carbon nanosheets – a pseudo-graphene structure”. By fabricating these sheets into electrodes and adding an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, his team made supercapacitors which operate at a broad range of temperatures and a high energy density.

Mitlin’s peer-reviewed journal paper ranks the device “on par with or better than commercial graphene-based devices”.

“They work down to 0C and display some of the best power-energy combinations reported in the literature for any carbon,” he adds. “For example, at a very high power density of 20 kW/kg (kilowatt per kilo) and temperatures of 20, 60, and 100C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh/kg (watt-hours per kilo) respectively.” Fully assembled, their energy density is 12 Wh/kg – which can be achieved at a charge time less than six seconds.

At the end of 2018, Texas-based electric motorcycle company Alternet announced that it was working with Mitlin to power motorbikes for its ReVolt Electric Motorbikes subsidiary.

So there you have it. If we already knew that there is no need to use the fossil fuels that are destroying the planet’s climate, because hemp biofuel provides a better alternative, we now know that there is no need to destroy the environment by mining for lithium and the materials that are used in batteries. We can literally grow technology. Hemp can save and power the world.

This article was first published in The Quarter Leaf issue 1.

New Way to Generate Electricity From The Sun

UCLA Professor invents new way to generate electricity from the sun

Bringing light to darkness sounds good.  But using darkness to create light is something out of a manual for wizards.  Until now.

Now, it’s an idea out of the pages of a scientific journal.

It starts with a round piece of polystyrene, a thermoplastic polymer made, not by wizards but by America’s petrochemical companies.

In case you’re wondering, polystyrene is made from the petrochemicals benzene and ethylene. And of course, petrochemicals are made by breaking apart molecules of petroleum and natural gas which get turned into chemical building blocks that are found in thousands of products we use daily.

That round piece of plastic is painted black so it looks sort of like a hockey puck, sitting on a dish.  At night, when the air cools down, the top side of that “puck” loses heat faster than the bottom side.  Add a thermoelectric generator, and you can turn that difference in temperature between top and bottom into electricity. No grid, no transmission towers, no expensive infrastructure needed.  No sun needed either.  Sorry solar panels.

Now, we’re not necessarily talking megawatts or kilowatts of electricity. We’re talking watts, period.  But around the world, close to a BILLION people don’t have any electricity at all so even something that just keeps a light on at night, could be a big deal.

In fact, that’s how this idea got started.  University of California Los Angeles Professor Aaswath Raman was on a trip in rural Africa, and didn’t realize he was passing through one particular village at night, until he was already in it (and heard people), because there was no light of any kind.

So what he came up with is a potentially simple, sturdy source of electricity that can bring light to the darkness from the darkness, no magic wand required.

Importance of The Parrot Fish

PARROT FISH ARE IMPORTANT!!

i feel sorry for the parrot fishes! Yes this fish can be eaten, but for us divers this is a big No No!!! There are important reasons why we should not eat them and we should educate the fishermen to stop catching these beautiful fish! Please do spare them … the ocean needs them to regenerate. Read below to be educated. They’re lots of fish you can catch in the sea. They can sell and cook the other fish, but leave the parrot fish!

Here is why:

Parrotfish eat algae and dead coral*. They spend up to 90% of their day nibbling. In other words, they clean the reef. This is important because most of the reefs across the tropics are being smothered by algae because there are not enough parrotfish and other herbivores out there grazing.

After all that eating, get this: They poop fine white sand – lots of it! Each parrotfish produces up to 320 kilograms (700 pounds) of sand each year.

Their numbers are so depleted, and algae levels are so high, that they cannot be fished sustainably right now anywhere in the Caribbean. These flamboyant, algae-eating, sand-pooping fish need to be left in the water. And when they are left to chomp away, they do a brilliant job. A massive new report concludes that reefs where parrotfish were abundant in the 1980s are the reefs that are healthy now.

There is a reason for their existence so please let’s not eat them … To our Govt. Please educate our fishermen… Say no to catching parrot fish! Let’s not buy parrot fish so they won’t catch them anymore.

Please share..

 

Source – FB

Tribes Create Their Own Food Laws to Stop USDA From Killing Native Food Economies

From blue corn to bison, narrow federal food-safety codes impact tribal food systems. But advocates are writing their own food laws to preserve Native food sovereignty.

SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY, Ariz. – Jacob Butler eyed a lemon tree—its bright yellow fruit nestled among thick green leaves and set against the blue Arizona sky—then checked on the tiny pomegranates and grapes in the garden as a black-striped lizard darted into the shade of a mesquite tree. In the distance, downtown Phoenix glittered under the rising sun.

”Our garden is a platform to perpetuate our culture.“

“We try to grow what’s been here for hundreds, if not thousands, of years,” says Butler, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community garden coordinator, as he surveyed the land and the plants growing on it. “For the past 13 years we’ve been doing this, so it’s in the minds of the people now.”

Traditionally, Pima and Maricopa tribal members grew lima beans, squash, corn, and other vegetables; used mesquite trees for food, medicine, and other practical purposes; and relied on wild game for food. Today, about 12,000 acres of their reservation are used for industrial farming—cotton, alfalfa, potatoes, and other commercial crops—but, in the garden where Butler works, agriculture isn’t a financial boon: It’s a way to strengthen and cultivate culture.

“What are the stories that go along with this tree? What’s the story we tell that says when squash came to the people or corn came to the people? What are the songs that go with those things?” says Butler. “That’s what we incorporate here: Our garden is a platform to perpetuate our culture.”

According to Butler, tribal members once cultivated myriad varieties of beans, squash, and melons. Now, many of those crops have become extinct and their stories lost, and losing other heirloom foods would have irreversible effects on cultural practices.

Indigenous communities have been sustained by thousands of years of food knowledge. But recent federal food safety rules could cripple those traditional systems and prevent the growth of agricultural economies in Indian Country, according to advocates and attorneys. Of the 567 tribal nations in the United States, only a handful have adopted laws that address food production and processing. Without functioning laws around food, tribes engaged in anything from farming to food handling and animal health are ceding power to state and federal authorities.

To protect tribal food systems, those advocates and attorneys are taking the law into their own hands, literally, by writing comprehensive food codes that can be adopted by tribes and used to effectively circumvent federal food safety codes. Because tribes retain sovereignty—complicated and sometimes limited though it may be—they can assert an equal right with the federal government to establish regulations for food handling.

Recent federal food safety rules could cripple those traditional systems.

“Tribal sovereignty is food sovereignty, and how do you assert food sovereignty?” says A-dae Romero-Briones, a consultant with the First Nations Development Institute, an economic development organization. “You do that through a tribal code.”

Food codes and laws are basic legislation governing agriculture and food processing. Food codes are good things: They are designed to protect consumers from products that could make them sick or even kill them, as with a national salmonella outbreak linked to peanut butter in 2008, and, more recently, E. Coli outbreaks at Chipotle restaurants in 11 states.

Since 2011, food laws have become tougher, thanks to the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the first major rewrite of U.S. food-safety laws in more than 50 years. Under FSMA, producers must take into account everything from the packaging and refrigeration of products to how crops are grown, all in the name of safety. These safety controls raise interesting questions in Indian Country.

Traditionally Pima and Maricopa tribal members grew lima beans squash corn and other vegetables. Today about 12000 acres of their reservation are used for industrial farming. YES! photo by Tristan Ahtone.

In many Native communities, for example, access to certified kitchens and state-of-the-art facilities is slim to nonexistent. That means producers often must rely on traditional knowledge to make foods that are safe for consumption. One example, says Romero-Briones, is blue corn products.

“That’s an industry that has existed for generations,” she says. “But if you want to produce it or process it in traditional fashions, you’re probably not going to be able to do that because you’re going to have to do it in a certified kitchen.”

Under FSMA, tribal food economies face two options: Assimilate by complying with federal law or keep tribal food products confined to the reservation.

“It’s one thing to say that we have to develop food and process food in certain ways, but it’s another thing to recognize that tribes have their own versions of food safety,” says Romero-Briones. “Tribes have been developing food economies for thousands of years.”

Another example of how traditional foods are impacted is buffalo slaughter. Dozens of tribes from the Dakotas to Oklahoma are engaged in buffalo management and harvesting. But those hoping to get buffalo products into markets outside of tribal communities often face big hurdles.

”Tribes have been developing food economies for thousands of years.“

Buffalo, for example, is considered an exotic animal under federal guidelines, says Dan Cornelius, with the Intertribal Agriculture Council. And that has repercussions when it comes to what the federal government will support.

“For domestic animals, USDA will pay for the cost of that inspector. For exotics, they don’t,” Cornelius says.

Inspections can run as high as $70 an animal, and all buffalo products must be processed in an FDA-approved facility. By implementing food codes, tribes could find alternative ways to getting buffalo meat inspected and processed. Cornelius says building an infrastructure that lowers costs would allow buffalo meat to get to market faster.

“Ultimately, is it a safe process? If it is, then how can you develop a tribally specific provision that still is ensuring a safe and healthy food but is addressing that barrier where there is a conflict?” he says.

So how do 567 different tribes with 567 different traditions, needs, and goals go about writing food codes specific to their cultural heritages? They call a lawyer. Specifically, Janie Hipp, director of the Indigenous Food and Agriculture Initiative, a legal think tank at the University of Arkansas.

Read The Full Article at YesMagazine