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Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses

Based on the response to our last few articles about gun ownership and firearms training, it’s clear that there’s a large demand for information about Black owned gun stores and firearms training businesses across the country.

Here’s a list of some of those businesses. We’ll keep updating it so let us know which other businesses should be added.

Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses


FIREARMS TRAINING


Gladiator Gunz Training Group | New Braunfels, TX 

black owned gun stores and firearms training
GLADIATOR GUNZ TRAINING GROUP

2 Swords Tactical & Defense | Lithonia, GA

2 SWORDS TACTICAL & DEFENSE

Skips Defense Solutions | Louisville, KY 

Taurean Strategies |Hallandale, FL

TAUREAN STRATEGIES

The EDC Guy Academy| Miami, FL

THE EDC GUY ACADEMY

Alpha 1 Tactical |Tulsa, OK 

black owned gun stores and firearms training
ALPHA 1 TACTICAL

Angel Arms NOLA | New Orleans, LA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
ANGEL ARMS NOLA

Girls Get Tactical | Hollywood, FL

black owned gun stores and firearms training
GIRLS GET TACTICAL

Body By “O” Tactical | Grand Prairie, TX

BODY BY “O” TACTICAL

Provectus Group |Taylorsville, GA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
PROVECTUS GROUP

My Sisters Keeper Defense Training|Atlanta, GA

Black Owned Gun Stores and Firearms Training Businesses
MY SISTERS KEEPER DEFENSE TRAINING

The Don Firearms |Boston, MA

black owned gun stores and firearms training
THE DON FIREARMS

Tutor for Shooters | Rosenberg, TX

TUTOR FOR SHOOTERS

GIRLZ on F.I.R.E. | High Point, NC

GIRLZ ON F.I.R.E.

RideOrDie Gun Training | Cincinnati, OH

RIDEORDIE GUN TRAINING

JMD Defense | Chicago, IL

JMD DEFENSE

Train 2 Fight | Philadelphia, PA

TRAIN 2 FIGHT

M-W Tactical | Columbia, SC

M-W TACTICAL
BLACK ROOTS TRAINING ACADEMY
Apex Defense Solutions | Detroit, MI

Fluid Loading With Salt Water

MICHAEL HEIKO

Before a marathon or other long race, you make sure your energy stores are as full as possible by carb-loading. But what about your fluid stores? Is it possible to “hydration-load”? If you just drink a bunch of water a few hours before your race, that will stimulate your need to urinate, and you won’t retain any of the extra water (assuming you’re already well-hydrated). But you may be able to circumvent this urge by adding a little salt to your water, which changes the osmolality of your blood and in turn affects levels of the hormones that make you need to pee. There’s a downside, though, as every shipwrecked mariner has discovered: drinking saltwater doesn’t make your stomach feel good.

So is there an ideal balance that allows you to add extra water stores without getting the runs? That’s what a new dose-response study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology, from researchers at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, aimed to find out. They fed eight volunteers about a liter of fluid over an hour, varying the sodium concentrations, while monitoring changes in fluid balance, plasma volume, and digestive comfort. The sodium concentrations were 0 (i.e. water), 60 mmol/L (similar to World Health Organization oral rehydration solutions), 120 mmol/L, and 180 mmol/L (similar to concentrations that have given the highest increase in plasma volume in previous studies.

Here’s what the changes in plasma volume and overall fluid balance looked like:

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Only the two highest doses of sodium produced statistically significant elevations in plasma volume two hours after the drinking started (though you can see that the lower sodium dose did produce “intermediate” values). Not coincidentally, only the two highest sodium doses produced diarrhea in the subjects — 1 of 8 subjects had it with 120 mmol/L, and 6 of 8 with the highest dose of 180 mmol/L. The conclusion: 120 mmol/L of sodium provides the best balance between boosting plasma volume and not having to visit the portapotty, at least in a protocol that involves drinking 1 liter of water in six equal doses between 120 and 60 minutes before the race.

So does this actually improve performance? In theory, higher plasma volume should help you pump oxgyen to your muscles more efficiently, thus boosting performance. In practice, it’s worth remembering that (a) you’ll be carrying a bit of extra weight, (b) even without diarrhea, a mildly upset stomach could interfere with performance, and mostly importantly (c) individual responses vary. It’s also worth noting that, even at the higher sodium levels, the subjects peed out between a third and half of the water they drank — that could certainly be a hassle in the final minutes before a race, let alone during the race.

***

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Earth Power: Hemp Batteries Better Than Lithium And Graphene

 Henry Ford’s Model T was famously made partly from hemp bioplastic and powered by hemp biofuel. Now, with battery-powered vehicles starting to replace those that use combustion engines, it has been found that hemp batteries perform eight times better than lithium-ion. Is there anything that this criminally-underused plant can’t do?

The comparison has only been proven on a very small scale. (You weren’t expecting a Silicon Valley conglomerate to do something genuinely groundbreaking were you? They mainly just commercialise stuff that’s been invented or at least funded by the state.) But the results are extremely promising.

The experiment was conducted by Robert Murray Smith – who has built up quite a following on his YouTube channel – of FWG Ltd in Kent. He observed a Volts by Amps curve of both the hemp and lithium batteries and found that the power underneath the hemp cell was a value of 31 while that of the lithium cell had a value of just 4. Although he does not claim to have proven anything, he said that the results of his experiment showed that the performance of the hemp cell is “significantly better” than the lithium cell.

It comes as no real surprise, which is presumably why he conducted the experiment. In 2014, scientists in the US found that waste fibres – ‘shiv’ – from hemp crops can be transformed into “ultrafast” supercapacitors that are “better than graphene”. Graphene is a synthetic carbon material lighter than foil yet bulletproof, but it is prohibitively expensive to make. The hemp version isn’t just better, it costs one-thousandth of the price.

The scientists “cooked” leftover bast fibre – the inner bark of the plant that usually ends up in landfill – into carbon nanosheets in a process called hydrothermal synthesis. “People ask me: why hemp? I say, why not?” said Dr David Mitlin of Clarkson University, New York, in an interview with the BBC. “We’re making graphene-like materials for a thousandth of the price – and we’re doing it with waste.”

Dr Mitlin’s team recycled the fibres into supercapacitors, energy storage devices which are transforming the way electronics are powered. While conventional batteries store large reservoirs of energy and drip-feed it slowly, supercapacitors can rapidly discharge their entire load.

This makes them ideal in machines that require sharp bursts of power. In electric cars, for example, supercapacitors are used for regenerative braking. Releasing this torrent requires electrodes with high surface area, one of graphene’s many phenomenal properties.

Mitlin says that “you can do really interesting things with bio-waste”. With banana peels, for example, “you can turn them into a dense block of carbon – we call it pseudo-graphite – and that’s great for sodium-ion batteries. But if you look at hemp fibre its structure is the opposite – it makes sheets with high surface area – and that’s very conducive to supercapacitors.”

Once the bark has been cooked, “you dissolve the lignin and the semicellulose, and it leaves these carbon nanosheets – a pseudo-graphene structure”. By fabricating these sheets into electrodes and adding an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, his team made supercapacitors which operate at a broad range of temperatures and a high energy density.

Mitlin’s peer-reviewed journal paper ranks the device “on par with or better than commercial graphene-based devices”.

“They work down to 0C and display some of the best power-energy combinations reported in the literature for any carbon,” he adds. “For example, at a very high power density of 20 kW/kg (kilowatt per kilo) and temperatures of 20, 60, and 100C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh/kg (watt-hours per kilo) respectively.” Fully assembled, their energy density is 12 Wh/kg – which can be achieved at a charge time less than six seconds.

At the end of 2018, Texas-based electric motorcycle company Alternet announced that it was working with Mitlin to power motorbikes for its ReVolt Electric Motorbikes subsidiary.

So there you have it. If we already knew that there is no need to use the fossil fuels that are destroying the planet’s climate, because hemp biofuel provides a better alternative, we now know that there is no need to destroy the environment by mining for lithium and the materials that are used in batteries. We can literally grow technology. Hemp can save and power the world.

This article was first published in The Quarter Leaf issue 1.

New Way to Generate Electricity From The Sun

UCLA Professor invents new way to generate electricity from the sun

Bringing light to darkness sounds good.  But using darkness to create light is something out of a manual for wizards.  Until now.

Now, it’s an idea out of the pages of a scientific journal.

It starts with a round piece of polystyrene, a thermoplastic polymer made, not by wizards but by America’s petrochemical companies.

In case you’re wondering, polystyrene is made from the petrochemicals benzene and ethylene. And of course, petrochemicals are made by breaking apart molecules of petroleum and natural gas which get turned into chemical building blocks that are found in thousands of products we use daily.

That round piece of plastic is painted black so it looks sort of like a hockey puck, sitting on a dish.  At night, when the air cools down, the top side of that “puck” loses heat faster than the bottom side.  Add a thermoelectric generator, and you can turn that difference in temperature between top and bottom into electricity. No grid, no transmission towers, no expensive infrastructure needed.  No sun needed either.  Sorry solar panels.

Now, we’re not necessarily talking megawatts or kilowatts of electricity. We’re talking watts, period.  But around the world, close to a BILLION people don’t have any electricity at all so even something that just keeps a light on at night, could be a big deal.

In fact, that’s how this idea got started.  University of California Los Angeles Professor Aaswath Raman was on a trip in rural Africa, and didn’t realize he was passing through one particular village at night, until he was already in it (and heard people), because there was no light of any kind.

So what he came up with is a potentially simple, sturdy source of electricity that can bring light to the darkness from the darkness, no magic wand required.

Importance of The Parrot Fish

PARROT FISH ARE IMPORTANT!!

i feel sorry for the parrot fishes! Yes this fish can be eaten, but for us divers this is a big No No!!! There are important reasons why we should not eat them and we should educate the fishermen to stop catching these beautiful fish! Please do spare them … the ocean needs them to regenerate. Read below to be educated. They’re lots of fish you can catch in the sea. They can sell and cook the other fish, but leave the parrot fish!

Here is why:

Parrotfish eat algae and dead coral*. They spend up to 90% of their day nibbling. In other words, they clean the reef. This is important because most of the reefs across the tropics are being smothered by algae because there are not enough parrotfish and other herbivores out there grazing.

After all that eating, get this: They poop fine white sand – lots of it! Each parrotfish produces up to 320 kilograms (700 pounds) of sand each year.

Their numbers are so depleted, and algae levels are so high, that they cannot be fished sustainably right now anywhere in the Caribbean. These flamboyant, algae-eating, sand-pooping fish need to be left in the water. And when they are left to chomp away, they do a brilliant job. A massive new report concludes that reefs where parrotfish were abundant in the 1980s are the reefs that are healthy now.

There is a reason for their existence so please let’s not eat them … To our Govt. Please educate our fishermen… Say no to catching parrot fish! Let’s not buy parrot fish so they won’t catch them anymore.

Please share..

 

Source – FB

Tribes Create Their Own Food Laws to Stop USDA From Killing Native Food Economies

From blue corn to bison, narrow federal food-safety codes impact tribal food systems. But advocates are writing their own food laws to preserve Native food sovereignty.

SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY, Ariz. – Jacob Butler eyed a lemon tree—its bright yellow fruit nestled among thick green leaves and set against the blue Arizona sky—then checked on the tiny pomegranates and grapes in the garden as a black-striped lizard darted into the shade of a mesquite tree. In the distance, downtown Phoenix glittered under the rising sun.

”Our garden is a platform to perpetuate our culture.“

“We try to grow what’s been here for hundreds, if not thousands, of years,” says Butler, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community garden coordinator, as he surveyed the land and the plants growing on it. “For the past 13 years we’ve been doing this, so it’s in the minds of the people now.”

Traditionally, Pima and Maricopa tribal members grew lima beans, squash, corn, and other vegetables; used mesquite trees for food, medicine, and other practical purposes; and relied on wild game for food. Today, about 12,000 acres of their reservation are used for industrial farming—cotton, alfalfa, potatoes, and other commercial crops—but, in the garden where Butler works, agriculture isn’t a financial boon: It’s a way to strengthen and cultivate culture.

“What are the stories that go along with this tree? What’s the story we tell that says when squash came to the people or corn came to the people? What are the songs that go with those things?” says Butler. “That’s what we incorporate here: Our garden is a platform to perpetuate our culture.”

According to Butler, tribal members once cultivated myriad varieties of beans, squash, and melons. Now, many of those crops have become extinct and their stories lost, and losing other heirloom foods would have irreversible effects on cultural practices.

Indigenous communities have been sustained by thousands of years of food knowledge. But recent federal food safety rules could cripple those traditional systems and prevent the growth of agricultural economies in Indian Country, according to advocates and attorneys. Of the 567 tribal nations in the United States, only a handful have adopted laws that address food production and processing. Without functioning laws around food, tribes engaged in anything from farming to food handling and animal health are ceding power to state and federal authorities.

To protect tribal food systems, those advocates and attorneys are taking the law into their own hands, literally, by writing comprehensive food codes that can be adopted by tribes and used to effectively circumvent federal food safety codes. Because tribes retain sovereignty—complicated and sometimes limited though it may be—they can assert an equal right with the federal government to establish regulations for food handling.

Recent federal food safety rules could cripple those traditional systems.

“Tribal sovereignty is food sovereignty, and how do you assert food sovereignty?” says A-dae Romero-Briones, a consultant with the First Nations Development Institute, an economic development organization. “You do that through a tribal code.”

Food codes and laws are basic legislation governing agriculture and food processing. Food codes are good things: They are designed to protect consumers from products that could make them sick or even kill them, as with a national salmonella outbreak linked to peanut butter in 2008, and, more recently, E. Coli outbreaks at Chipotle restaurants in 11 states.

Since 2011, food laws have become tougher, thanks to the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the first major rewrite of U.S. food-safety laws in more than 50 years. Under FSMA, producers must take into account everything from the packaging and refrigeration of products to how crops are grown, all in the name of safety. These safety controls raise interesting questions in Indian Country.

Traditionally Pima and Maricopa tribal members grew lima beans squash corn and other vegetables. Today about 12000 acres of their reservation are used for industrial farming. YES! photo by Tristan Ahtone.

In many Native communities, for example, access to certified kitchens and state-of-the-art facilities is slim to nonexistent. That means producers often must rely on traditional knowledge to make foods that are safe for consumption. One example, says Romero-Briones, is blue corn products.

“That’s an industry that has existed for generations,” she says. “But if you want to produce it or process it in traditional fashions, you’re probably not going to be able to do that because you’re going to have to do it in a certified kitchen.”

Under FSMA, tribal food economies face two options: Assimilate by complying with federal law or keep tribal food products confined to the reservation.

“It’s one thing to say that we have to develop food and process food in certain ways, but it’s another thing to recognize that tribes have their own versions of food safety,” says Romero-Briones. “Tribes have been developing food economies for thousands of years.”

Another example of how traditional foods are impacted is buffalo slaughter. Dozens of tribes from the Dakotas to Oklahoma are engaged in buffalo management and harvesting. But those hoping to get buffalo products into markets outside of tribal communities often face big hurdles.

”Tribes have been developing food economies for thousands of years.“

Buffalo, for example, is considered an exotic animal under federal guidelines, says Dan Cornelius, with the Intertribal Agriculture Council. And that has repercussions when it comes to what the federal government will support.

“For domestic animals, USDA will pay for the cost of that inspector. For exotics, they don’t,” Cornelius says.

Inspections can run as high as $70 an animal, and all buffalo products must be processed in an FDA-approved facility. By implementing food codes, tribes could find alternative ways to getting buffalo meat inspected and processed. Cornelius says building an infrastructure that lowers costs would allow buffalo meat to get to market faster.

“Ultimately, is it a safe process? If it is, then how can you develop a tribally specific provision that still is ensuring a safe and healthy food but is addressing that barrier where there is a conflict?” he says.

So how do 567 different tribes with 567 different traditions, needs, and goals go about writing food codes specific to their cultural heritages? They call a lawyer. Specifically, Janie Hipp, director of the Indigenous Food and Agriculture Initiative, a legal think tank at the University of Arkansas.

Read The Full Article at YesMagazine

Joker Meets His End w. Household Items and Photography

Editorial travel and commercial automotive photographer Arjun Menon has been exercising his creative muscles as of late by shooting cinematic scenes at home using action figures and household items.

“I was listening to this song […] when this idea popped into my head,” Menon says. “Joker falling down a skyscraper and yet showing no signs of fear or remorse! After all, being a sociopath comes with their own ups and downs.”

The above photo of Joker falling from a skyscraper was captured with an assortment of things, including an air conditioning cover and some computer equipment.

Menon began by finding the long AC cover — it was long and symmetrical and would allow light to pass through, giving it the appearance of a tall skyscraper.

“I used its filters [for] the other two surrounding buildings,” the photographer says. “Found a few more things like keyboards, Bluetooth speakers, dumbbells as buildings. Then I made a road map with rice lights. Added candle LEDs as building lights.”

The snow on the ground was shaving cream and cornflour, and the snow in the air was hairspray shot with a flash.

“Loved the way this shot came to life with practical effects,” Menon says.

You can find more of the photographer’s work on his website and Instagram.

4 Benefits of Watermelon Rind

Watermelon may be one of the most appropriately named fruits. It’s a melon that’s 92 percent Trusted Source water. It’s also got a healthy amount of vitamin A and C, potassium, magnesium, and other important nutrients.

The most popular part of the watermelon is the pink flesh, but like its cousin, the cucumber, the whole thing is edible. This includes the green scraps that usually end up in the compost bin.

The rind, which is the green skin that keeps all that water-logged delicious fruit safe, is completely edible. Here are just a few reasons why you should consider not throwing it out.

1. It may make you better in bed

No, watermelon rind isn’t nature-powered Viagra, but some research shows that it may help men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Its libido-boosting powers come from the amino acid citrulline, which is concentrated in the rind.

One studyTrusted Source showed that taking L-citrulline supplements can improve erections without many of the potential side effects associated with Viagra.

Try spritzing your watermelon rind with lemon juice and sprinkling some chili powder on it. Both additives also are good for your heart, and your, ahem, other love organ.

2. It might give your workout a boost

Besides improving your performance in bed, citrulline might improve your next athletic performance as well. However, most evidence for this is anecdotal.

Citrulline promotes the dilation of blood vessels. One studyTrusted Source suggests that citrulline supplements improve oxygen delivery to muscles, potentially improving exercise performance.

To get it naturally, try pickled watermelon rinds, an old-fashioned treat in the southern states.

3. It can reduce your blood pressure

If your doctor instructed you to lower your blood pressure, try eating watermelon — rind and all. Some research has shown that watermelon extract supplements are able to help obese adults control their blood pressure.

However, citrulline supplements are likely more effective. Most studies  suggest citrulline supplements reduce blood pressure in people with hypertension.

Watermelon is also a potential diuretic, which often is prescribed for people with high blood pressure. Try freezing whole watermelon slices for a nice treat on a summer’s day.

4. It’s rich in fiber

Another benefit of watermelon rind is that it’s a rich source of fiber. A diet high in fiber has a whole host of health benefits, including the following:

  • Fiber helps maintain regular bowel movements and may help reduce the risk of developing diseases of the colon.
  • Fiber can help lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  • Foods with fiber fill you up faster, helping achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Only about 5 percent of adults in the United States get the recommended daily value of fiber. Consider eating the rind to boost your fiber levels!

Takeaway

Next time you slice into a watermelon, consider keeping the rind. It’s a quick and tasty way to improve your overall health.

Read more at HealthLine 

Eco-Responsible Furniture

This Bookshelf Can Be Reassembled Into A Coffin After The Owner’s Death

 

When we have a quiet moment to ourselves, we sometimes think about the world we’ll leave behind after we’re gone. Will the world be a better or worse place when you’re no longer in it? That’s one of the questions that drives people to consider the impact they have on the environment.

Designer William Warren created a set of bookshelves that will last you a lifetime: they can be reassembled as a coffin. In other words, the ‘Shelves for Life’ is a piece of furniture that will follow you on your final journey.

“The wood will color, the surfaces will mark and stain, and over the years and the furniture will become a part of you,” Warren writes. “When you die, the shelves can be taken apart and reassembled as a coffin. The brass plate under the bottom shelf, that tells the story about this transformation, is then flipped over and your dates inscribed on it.”

Scroll down for Bored Panda’s interview with Warren.

William Warren designed a set of bookshelves that can be reassembled into a coffin

Image credits: William Warren

Image credits: William Warren

Image credits: William Warren

According to Warren, people, in general, were at first surprised and then amused by his design. “It’s not everyone who sees the charm but some do. People are very pleased when they realize the designs can be downloaded for free.”

The designer admitted that there have been critics who did not enjoy his work: “I offered the design to a Japanese company when I first made it but they really didn’t like the reminder of death. Since then, some squeal and some smile.”

Warren revealed to Bored Panda that he’s still busy working away as a designer. Among his recent projects, he designed all the furniture and interiors in a new children’s hospital in Edinburgh and new gates for Kew Gardens in London. “I’m also teaching design at several universities and developing other music and video projects.”

The designer added that “we are all going to die” at some point and there’s no need to ignore it or try to forget it. “If you don’t think about it in advance, you’ll be buried or burnt in a chipboard box with paper that looks like wood and plastic handles that look like brass. Your grieving family will pay £400 for this £40 piece of rubbish because nobody argues with an undertaker. Better to have something you’ve made, something solid and something that has lived with you in life and has the stains and scars to prove it.”

This is how you can convert the shelves into a coffin

Image credits: William Warren

Image credits: William Warren

The eco-friendly shelves were first launched during the 2005 London Design Festival at the British Library and have made waves on the internet ever since.

Warren runs a furniture and product design consultancy, is a Senior Lecturer at London Metropolitan University, and also lectures at three other universities and colleges. His design philosophy is all about creating emotional experiences, making us think about our belongings, and his designs often feature humorous conceptual twists.

The designer has his very own set of ‘Shelves for Life’ and will send you a free personal design if you send him your measurements. According to Warren, these bookshelves will “store all your knowledge and prized possessions.”

He added that “it will be a visible part of your life and will get coffee stains and burns on it. So it will mean more when you use it as shelves and it will mean more when you are buried in it.”

Warren told the Financial Times that coffins are some of the most expensive pieces of furniture that people will ever buy while having the worst quality. “I’m happy for as many people to have mine as possible,” he said.

What do you think of Warren’s shelves, dear Pandas? Share your thoughts with everyone in the comment section.

Here’s how some people reacted to Warren’s design. A lot of folks loved the idea

 

Read the full article at Bored Panda

Medicinal Mushroom Benefits: Mycelium vs Fruiting Body

Mushrooms vs Mycelium

To Benefit from a Medicinal Mushroom, You Need to Know What You’re Getting

Not all fungi products are equal. You should know what you’re getting when you purchase supplements to reap medicinal mushroom benefits. And with so many products on the market making claims about ingredients and efficacy, it can be challenging to understand what really offers the most benefit to your health.

Read on to learn the myths and facts about medicinal mushroom supplements to get the most functional health support from fungi.

Mushroom Parts & Marketing Hype

The way many supplement brands market and sell their fungi products is cause for concern. If consumers don’t know what to look for when buying a medicinal mushroom supplement, they may easily be misled by the packaging, naming, and labeling of the vast products available.

It can be difficult to distinguish a real mushroom extract made of the mushroom (fruiting body) from one made of the mushroom’s “root” structure, mycelium. Reading a supplement’s packaging and nutritional labels won’t necessarily tell you the whole story either.

Mushroom product labeling requirements from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tell manufacturers to clearly distinguish whether the product contains actual mushroom (the fruiting body) or just the mycelium in any food or supplement product. But not everyone follows these rules and this is low on the FDA’s enforcement priorities.

In 2017, The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) released labelling guidance for Fungi Dietary Ingredients. This is not enforceable but gives recommendations on how Fungal based products should be accurately labelled to clearly inform the consumer on what is in the product.

Too often, brands disguise the true nature of their products and misdirect consumers who want to buy effective medicinal mushroom products. Here we will separate the myths from the facts about mushroom terminology, their active compounds, and the marketing hype, to give you the information you need to buy a supplement with the most medicinal mushroom benefits.

To reap these benefits, you need a supplement with high concentrations of the parts of the fungi that offer the most therapeutic compounds. This article gives you the knowledge you need to make informed purchasing decisions, so you can truly experience the adaptive health benefits of medicinal mushroom supplementation.

Mushroom vs. Mycelium

The Difference between Fungal Parts

A mushroom is the “fruiting body” of a fungal organism called a basidiomycete (except in the case of the cordyceps mushroom — they are an organism called an ascomycete). Basidiomycetes have three distinct parts that develop throughout its lifecycle: spore, mycelium, and mushroom.

The spores are in the surrounding air all around us, and under favorable conditions, these will germinate and begin to grow branching filaments called hyphae. As the hyphae continue to grow, they will fuse together to form mycelium.

Mycelium is an underground network that expands and feeds off of organic plant matter. This phase of the basidiomycetes’ life cycle is the vegetative stage. During this time, the mycelium produces enzymes that break down the plant material in its growth radius and recycles it into beneficial compounds that return to the soil.

In nature, this typically means that mycelium will form large networks of fungal matter by breaking down wood, logs, leaves, and other plant matter. The plant matter on which fungi feed is commonly referred to as the substrate. The mycelium becomes entwined in whatever substrate it’s in, making an inseparable mass of substrate and mycelium.

If environmental conditions are right, the mycelium will produce a mushroom, a.k.a. the fruiting body. The mushroom is actually the reproductive structure of this organism. When fully mature, it produces spores that, when distributed across plant matter, will allow for the creation of new mycelial networks, and ultimately the spread of the fungus.

Mycelial networks can live for hundreds, if not thousands of years and spread across vast distances. In fact, the largest organism on earth is a mycelial mat of a honey mushroom in eastern Oregon that is 890 hectares in size and over 2,000 years old!

It is important to reiterate that just as a mushroom is not mycelium, mycelium is also not a mushroom. These terms are not synonymous and should be accurately differentiated.


Mushroom lifecycle

Identifying Fillers in Your Supplement

Read the ingredients on the mushroom or mycelium supplement package to see which part of these fungi the producer used. Based on the labelling, many times it is unclear. The product could be any combination of mycelium, mushroom, sclerotium, spore, and substrate matter, dried, ground into a powder and then potentially extracted.

Using all the parts of the fungi might seem like an effective way to reap the most benefits. However, there are parts of the basidiomycete, like the mushroom (fruiting body), that contain more active beneficial compounds than others. The mycelium, on the other hand, when grown on a solid substrate will also contains compounds of whatever substrate material it has been grown on.

The majority of commercial mycelium producers grow it on grains like rice, oats, or sorghum. Therefore, all that grain becomes inseparable from the mycelium and remains in the final product, leading to high amounts of starch.

When myceliated grain forms the bulk of a supplement, the grain acts as a filler and “dilutes” the product because it doesn’t contain any active compounds. Myceliated grain dramatically reduces how much beneficial compounds are in each serving of your supplement.

Read the full article at RealMushrooms